Inhibitory effects of intravenous anaesthetic agents on K+-evoked glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical slices. Involvement of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and GABA(A) receptors
ABSTRACT It is widely accepted that most general anaesthetic agents depress the central nervous system (CNS) by potentiation or activation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated Cl(-) conductance. These agents also reportedly inhibit voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels (VSCCs), thus depressing excitatory transmission in the CNS. However, in this regard there are few functional data at the level of neurotransmitter release. In this study we examined the effects of VSCC antagonists and a range of intravenous anaesthetic agents on K(+)(40 mM)-evoked glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical slices in the absence and presence of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (100 microM). We employed both selective and non-selective VSCC antagonists, the anaesthetic barbiturates thiopental, pentobarbital and phenobarbital, the non-anaesthetic barbiturate barbituric acid, the non-barbiturate anaesthetics alphaxalone, propofol and ketamine and the GABA(A) receptor agonist, muscimol. Glutamate released into the incubation medium was determined by a glutamate dehydrogenase-coupled assay. Omega-agatoxin IV(A) (P-type VSCC), omega-conotoxin MVII(C) (P/Q-type VSCC) and Cd(2+) (non-selective) essentially abolished glutamate release whilst nifedipine (L-type VSCC) and omega-conotoxin GVI(A) (N-type VSCC) reduced release by less than 30%. The concentrations producing 50% of the maximum inhibition (IC(50)) for thiopental, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, alphaxalone, propofol and ketamine were (in microM) 8.3, 22, 112, 6.3, 83 and 120, respectively. Barbituric acid produced a small (about 20%) inhibition. With the exception of ketamine, the IC(50) values for these anaesthetic agents were increased threefold by bicuculline (100 microM). In addition, muscimol significantly inhibited release by 26% with an IC(50) of 1.1 microM. In summary, a range of anaesthetic agents at clinically achievable concentrations inhibit glutamate release and this inhibition of release appears to be due mainly to direct inhibition of P/Q-type VSCCs, although activation of the GABA(A) receptor plays a role in this response.
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ABSTRACT: Orexins (OXs) regulate sleep with possible interactions with brain noradrenergic neurons. In addition, noradrenergic activity affects barbiturate anesthesia. As we have also recently reported that OXs selectively evoke norepinephrine release from rat cerebrocortical slices we hypothesized that barbiturate anesthesia may result from of an interaction with central orexinergic systems. To test this hypothesis, we performed a series of in vivo and in vitro studies in rats. In vivo, the effects of i.c.v. OX A, B and SB-334867-A (OX1 receptor antagonist) on pentobarbital, thiopental or phenobarbital-induced anesthesia times (loss of righting reflex) was assessed. In vitro effects of barbiturates and SB-334867-A on OX-evoked norepinephrine release from cerebrocortical slice was examined. In Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human OX1/OX2 receptors OX A- and B-evoked increases in intracellular Ca2+ were measured with and without barbiturates. OX A and B significantly decreased pentobarbital, thiopental and phenobarbital anesthesia times by 15-40%. SB-334867-A increased thiopental-induced anesthesia time by approximately by 40%, and reversed the decrease produced by OX A. In vitro, all anesthetic barbiturates inhibited OX-evoked norepinephrine release with clinically relevant IC50 values. A GABAA antagonist, bicuculline, did not modify the inhibitory effects of thiopental and the GABAA agonist, muscimol, did not inhibit norepinephrine release. In addition there was no interaction of barbiturates with either OX1 or OX2 receptors. Collectively our data suggest that orexinergic neurons may be an important target for barbiturates, and GABAA, OX1 and OX2 receptors may not be involved in this interaction.Neuroscience 02/2003; 121(4):855-63. DOI:10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00554-2 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fear is an adaptive component of the acute "stress" response to potentially-dangerous (external and internal) stimuli which threaten to perturb homeostasis. However, when disproportional in intensity, chronic and/or irreversible, or not associated with any genuine risk, it may be symptomatic of a debilitating anxious state: for example, social phobia, panic attacks or generalized anxiety disorder. In view of the importance of guaranteeing an appropriate emotional response to aversive events, it is not surprising that a diversity of mechanisms are involved in the induction and inhibition of anxious states. Apart from conventional neurotransmitters, such as monoamines, gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, many other modulators have been implicated, including: adenosine, cannabinoids, numerous neuropeptides, hormones, neurotrophins, cytokines and several cellular mediators. Accordingly, though benzodiazepines (which reinforce transmission at GABA(A) receptors), serotonin (5-HT)(1A) receptor agonists and 5-HT reuptake inhibitors are currently the principle drugs employed in the management of anxiety disorders, there is considerable scope for the development of alternative therapies. In addition to cellular, anatomical and neurochemical strategies, behavioral models are indispensable for the characterization of anxious states and their modulation. Amongst diverse paradigms, conflict procedures--in which subjects experience opposing impulses of desire and fear--are of especial conceptual and therapeutic pertinence. For example, in the Vogel Conflict Test (VCT), the ability of drugs to release punishment-suppressed drinking behavior is evaluated. In reviewing the neurobiology of anxious states, the present article focuses in particular upon: the multifarious and complex roles of individual modulators, often as a function of the specific receptor type and neuronal substrate involved in their actions; novel targets for the management of anxiety disorders; the influence of neurotransmitters and other agents upon performance in the VCT; data acquired from complementary pharmacological and genetic strategies and, finally, several open questions likely to orientate future experimental- and clinical-research. In view of the recent proliferation of mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis, modulation and, potentially, treatment of anxiety disorders, this is an opportune moment to survey their functional and pathophysiological significance, and to assess their influence upon performance in the VCT and other models of potential anxiolytic properties.Progress in Neurobiology 07/2003; 70(2):83-244. DOI:10.1016/S0301-0082(03)00087-X · 10.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To gain a better insight into the alterations of brain function after chronic ethanol, we measured the release of various neurotransmitters from nerve terminals of cortex and hippocampus isolated fm rats chronically fed with ethanol. The K+-evoked release of [3H]acetylcholine (ACh), f[H]dopamine (DA), [3H] glutamate(Glu) and [3H]noradrenaline (NA) was determined in superfused synaptosomes of brain cortex and hippocampus from rats exposed to the Lieber-DeCarli alcohol liquid diet for 5 weeks. In cortical synaptosomes, chronic ethanol administration did not affect the release of ACh and of DA, while significantly decreasing the release of Glu and NA. The endogenous levels of NA, DA and their metabolites were unchanged. In hippocampal synaptosomes the only effect of chronic alcohol was an increased release of Glu. It can be concluded that at presynaptic level chronic ethanol alters brain neurotransmitter systems selectively. Glutamatergic and noradrenergic nerve terminals from cortex are more vulnerable than those from hippocampus.Addiction Biology 10/2003; 8(3):287-94. DOI:10.1080/13556210310001602194 · 5.91 Impact Factor