Distinct lineages of T(H)1 cells have differential capacities for memory cell generation in vivo.
ABSTRACT We studied here the long-term maintenance of distinct populations of T helper type 1 (T(H)1)-lineage cells in vivo and found that effector T(H)1 cells, defined by their secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), are short-lived and do not efficiently develop into long-term memory T(H)1 cells. In contrast, a population of activated T(H)1-lineage cells that did not secrete IFN-gamma after primary antigenic stimulation persisted for several months in vivo and developed the capacity to secrete IFN-gamma upon subsequent stimulation. These data suggest that a linear differentiation pathway, as defined by the transition from IFN-gamma-producing to resting memory cells, is relatively limited in vivo and support a revised model for T(H)1 memory differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection typically resolves within 4-7 wk but symptomatic relapse occurs in up to 20% of cases. Immune mechanisms that terminate acute HAV infection, and prevent a relapse of virus replication and liver disease, are unknown. Here, patterns of T cell immunity, virus replication, and hepatocellular injury were studied in two HAV-infected chimpanzees. HAV-specific CD8(+) T cells were either not detected in the blood or failed to display effector function until after viremia and hepatitis began to subside. The function of CD8(+) T cells improved slowly as the cells acquired a memory phenotype but was largely restricted to production of IFN-γ. In contrast, CD4(+) T cells produced multiple cytokines when viremia first declined. Moreover, only CD4(+) T cells responded during a transient resurgence of fecal HAV shedding. This helper response then contracted slowly over several months as HAV genomes were eliminated from liver. The findings indicate a dominant role for CD4(+) T cells in the termination of HAV infection and, possibly, surveillance of an intrahepatic reservoir of HAV genomes that decays slowly. Rapid contraction or failure to sustain such a CD4(+) T cell response after resolution of symptoms could increase the risk of relapsing hepatitis A.Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/2012; 209(8):1481-92. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (PHE) is caused by the coronavirus hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHE-CoV), and the recent, rapid spread of PHE-CoV in piglets from many countries emphasizes the urgent need for a PHE-CoV vaccine. Here we use a murine model for evaluation of the induction of humoral and cellular immune responses by inactivated and PHE-CoV DNA vaccines in order to define the immune correlates for protection against PHE-CoV. The inactivated vaccine was composed of purified PHE-CoV and aluminum hydroxide gel (alum), which was chosen as an adjuvant because of its long history of safety for human use. The PHE-CoV DNA vaccine was constructed by subcloning the S1 gene of PHE-CoV into the pVAX1 vector to create the recombinant plasmid pV-S1. Our results showed that the inactivated PHE-CoV vaccine (IPV) elicited a high level of humoral immunity, resulting in good protection efficacy against PHE-CoV challenge. The IPV induced the IgG1 subclass of serum antibodies and expression of the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4), suggesting that the IPV generated a predominantly Th2-type immune response. The DNA vaccine was found to mediate primarily a cellular immune response with high levels of IgG2a and the cytokines IL-2 and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). However, mice that were vaccinated twice with the DNA vaccine and boosted with the IPV could mount a sufficient neutralizing antibody response against live PHE-CoV, with little variation in IgG1 and IgG2a levels, and showed high levels of IL-2 and IL-4. This response may activate both B and T cells to mount a specific humoral and cellular immune response that could, in turn, elicit a phagocyte-mediated defense against PHE-CoV infections to achieve viral clearance.Clinical and vaccine immunology: CVI 04/2012; 19(7):1102-9. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The maintenance of CMV-specific T cell memory in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) is critical for host defense and allograft durability, particularly in donor(+) /recipient(-) (D(+) R(-) ) individuals who demonstrate increased mortality. We studied CD4(+) and CD8(+) CMV-specific memory responses to phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) in a prospective cohort of 18 D(+) R(-) LTRs, from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-obtained lung mononuclear cells (LMNC) and PBMC. Unexpectedly, pp65-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) IFN-γ memory responses from LMNC were similar, in contrast to persistent CD8(+) predominance in PBMC. Unlike the pulmonary CD8(+) predominance during acute primary infection, compartmental equalization occurred in the CMV-specific CD8(+) memory pool during chronic infection, whereas CMV-specific CD4(+) memory was enriched in the bronchoalveolar space. Moreover, CMV-specific CD4(+) memory T cells with multifunctional production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and MIP-1β were significantly increased in LMNCs, in contrast to similar intercompartmental CD8(+) memory function. Moreover, the absolute number of CMV-specific CD4(+) IFN-γ(+) memory cells in BAL was significantly increased in LTRs exhibiting viral control compared to those with CMV early antigen positivity. Collectively, these data demonstrate both preferential distribution and functional quality of CMV-specific CD4(+) memory in the lung allograft during chronic infection, and show an important association with CMV mucosal immunity and viral control.American Journal of Transplantation 09/2012; · 6.19 Impact Factor