Vital aspects of Fallopian tube physiology in pigs.
ABSTRACT This essay reviews four topical aspects of Fallopian tube physiology that bear on either successful fertilization or early development of the zygote. An initial focus is on glycoprotein secretions of the duct that accumulate as a viscous mucus in the caudal isthmus. Because this is the site of the pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir, an involvement of the secretions is considered in: preventing uterine and ampullary tubal fluids from entering the functional sperm reservoir; removing residual male secretions from the sperm surface; deflecting spermatozoa towards endosalpingeal organelles and reducing flagellar beat before ovulation. The subtle prompting of flagellar movement with impending ovulation is examined in terms of potential reactivation mechanisms, with overall control attributed to increasing secretion of progesterone. The site of full capacitation and the acrosome reaction in a fertilizing spermatozoon is then debated, with strong arguments pointing to completion of these processes in the specific fluids at the ampullary-isthmic junction. Finally, the synthetic activity of cumulus cells released at ovulation as a paracrine tissue in the Fallopian tube is highlighted with reference to steroid hormones, peptides and cytokines. Not only does the suspension of granulosa-derived cells influence the process of fertilization, but also it may amplify oocyte or embryonic signals to the endosalpinx and ipsilateral ovary.
Article: Differing sperm ability to penetrate the oocyte in vivo and in vitro as revealed using colloidal preparations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The penetration ability of boar (Sus scrofa domestica) spermatozoa exposed to viscous preparations under in vivo and in vitro fertilization conditions has been examined. Experiments involving induced ovulation in prepubertal animals and surgical insemination directly into the oviduct isthmus revealed an advantage of colloidal preparations. Based on within-animal comparisons, the incidence of penetration was 100% using both spermatozoa suspended in a viscous preparation of plant extracts and spermatozoa suspended in a control medium. However, percentages of monospermy were 22.2% in 54 oocytes inseminated with the control suspension compared with 62.5% in 48 oocytes inseminated with the colloidal preparation. An in vitro study involving 355 oocytes from slaughterhouse ovaries inseminated with in vitro-capacitated spermatozoa gave similar percentages of penetrated oocytes for both the control and colloidal suspensions. In this case, however, the percentage of monospermy was 32.7% in the control group compared with 10.6% for spermatozoa suspended in the colloidal preparation. Higher mean numbers of sperm inside the oocytes and higher numbers of sperm bound to the zona pellucida were also observed with the colloidal suspensions. In vitro motility and viability for spermatozoa in the colloidal suspensions were enhanced compared with that of the control group. Lower sperm membrane lipid disorder and reactive oxygen species generation were also observed in the viscous solution. These findings suggest that viscous fluids can enhance the ability of sperm to move, bind, and penetrate the oocyte in vitro, although this influence may be masked in vivo due to the already high viscosity in the oviductal fluid close to the time of ovulation.Theriogenology 10/2009; 72(9):1171-9. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Migration of spermatozoa in the female genital tract will be strongly influenced by the viscosity of the fluids encountered, yet little systematic analysis has been given to such a consideration. This essay reviews the series of milieux confronting a fertilising sperm during its progression to the oviduct ampulla. Two groups are discussed, first those in which ejaculation is into the vagina, second those in which semen enters the uterus during a protracted mating. Viscous glycoprotein secretions that accumulate in the oviduct isthmus of both groups before ovulation are highlighted, as is the environment generated in the ampulla by the post-ovulatory suspension of oocyte(s), cumulus cells and spermatozoa; follicular and peritoneal fluids may also be present. The viscosity of all female tract fluids responds to cyclical variations in temperature, and these exist within the oviduct near the time of ovulation. Gradations in viscosity influence the pattern and strength of sperm flagellar activity and the rate of forward movement. Measurements of sperm motility are currently made in a physiological medium of constant viscosity and temperature, thereby overlooking changes in the female genital tract. A more sophisticated approach might reveal an adequate fertilising potential in a proportion of putatively poor semen samples.Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 01/2011; 28(3):191-7. · 1.84 Impact Factor