Role of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in neutrophil activation: GM-CSF enhances TLR2 expression and TLR2-mediated interleukin 8 responses in neutrophils.
ABSTRACT In vitro studies as well as clinical trials indicate that the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhance the ability of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) to eliminate microbial organisms. Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins, homologs of the Drosophila protein Toll, have been found on the surface of mammalian cells and are important in the responses of macrophages to bacterial, viral, and fungal antigens. TLR4 is critical for the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria, while TLR2 is important for response to gram-positive bacteria, bacterial peptides, and yeast zymosan. We demonstrate that TLR2, but very little TLR4, is present on the surface of human neutrophils. In addition we demonstrate that GM-CSF and G-CSF dramatically up-regulate TLR2 and CD14 surface expression. GM-CSF treatment also up-regulates TLR2 and CD14 mRNA levels in neutrophils. In addition to increasing receptor expression, GM-CSF treatment enhanced the interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion and superoxide priming responses of neutrophils to stimulation with TLR2 ligands, including zymosan, peptidoglycan, and lipoarabinomannan. The human monocyte response to crude bacterial LPS is composed of a TLR4-specific response to the pure LPS component and a TLR2-dependent response to associated lipopeptides. The removal of TLR2 lipopeptide components from LPS by phenol re-extraction substantially reduced both the IL-8 and superoxide response of the stimulated neutrophils, indicating that, unlike monocytes, the neutrophil response is preferentially directed to TLR2 ligands. Thus, our studies demonstrate that GM-CSF dramatically enhances the functional response of neutrophils to TLR2 ligands, including LPS-associated lipopeptides.
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ABSTRACT: Melioidosis is a potentially fatal disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the most common comorbidity associated with melioidosis. B. pseudomallei isolates from melioidosis patients with T2D are less virulent in animal models than those from patients with melioidosis and no identifiable risk factors. We developed an ex vivo whole-blood assay as a tool for comparison of early inflammatory profiles generated by T2D and nondiabetic (ND) individuals in response to a B. pseudomallei strain of low virulence. Peripheral blood from individuals with T2D, with either poorly controlled glycemia (PC-T2D [n = 6]) or well-controlled glycemia (WC-T2D [n = 8]), and healthy ND (n = 13) individuals was stimulated with B. pseudomallei. Oxidative burst, myeloperoxidase (MPO) release, expression of pathogen recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, and CD14), and activation markers (CD11b and HLA-DR) were measured on polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes and monocytes. Concentrations of plasma inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-12p70, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-10) were also determined. Following stimulation, oxidative burst and MPO levels were significantly elevated in blood from PC-T2D subjects compared to controls. Differences were also observed in expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), CD14, and CD11b on phagocytes from T2D and ND individuals. Levels of IL-12p70, MCP-1, and IL-8 were significantly elevated in blood from PC-T2D subjects compared to ND individuals. Notably, differential inflammatory responses of PC-T2D, WC-T2D, and ND individuals to B. pseudomallei occur independently of bacterial load and confirm the efficacy of this model of T2D-melioidosis comorbidity as a tool for investigation of dysregulated PMN and monocyte responses to B. pseudomallei underlying susceptibility of T2D individuals to melioidosis.Infection and immunity 04/2012; 80(6):2089-99. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inducible heat shock protein (HspA1A) promotes tumor cell growth and survival. It also interacts with effector cells of the innate immune system and affects their activity. Recently, we showed that the direct contact of ovarian cancer cells, isolated from tumor specimens, with neutrophils intensified their biological functions. Our current experiments demonstrate that the activation of neutrophils, followed by an increased production of reactive oxygen species, by cancer cells involves the interaction of HspA1A from cancer cells with Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 expressed on the neutrophils' surface. Our data may have a practical implication for targeted anticancer therapies based, among other factors, on the inhibition of HspA1A expression in the cancer cells.Cell Stress and Chaperones 04/2012; 17(6):661-74. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Zymosan-induced peritonitis represents a well-described model of acute inflammation. The binding of zymosan with its specific Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR6) on leukocytes initiates activation and phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, which leads to accumulation of NF-κB p65 subunits in the nucleus and subsequently up-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokine genes expression. Intraperitoneal co-administration of zymosan and morphine significantly inhibits peritonitis in several strains of mice by decreasing the influx of exudatory cells; however, mechanisms of this action still remain unclear. We aimed to verify the effects of morphine on NF-κB and TLRs expression at messenger RNA and protein levels during the early stages of zymosan-induced peritonitis. Peritonitis was induced by a single injection of zymosan A or zymosan supplemented with morphine in Swiss mice. At selected time points, after stimulation, peritoneal leukocytes were harvested. The TLRs and NF-κB expression was assessed by real-time PCR and flow cytometry. In comparison with the mice injected with zymosan only, morphine co-injection significantly decreased the expression of phospho-NF-κB and TLR2 in all investigated immunocompetent cells as well as up-regulated the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in peritoneal fluid. Moreover, supplementation of zymosan with morphine altered the TLR, NF-κB and some proinflammatory cytokines (keratinocyte-derived chemokine, tumor necrosis factor-α) gene expression during ongoing inflammation. We may postulate that after morphine stimulation peritoneal leukocytes recognize less effectively zymosan antigens because of impaired TLRs expression. The lower TLR expression attenuates TLR-mediated signal transduction, which prevents NF-κB activation. Additionally, during zymosan-induced peritonitis, morphine may modulate the NF-κB expression, at least partially, by an up-regulated release of NO, as suggested by others.Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 08/2012; 60(5):373-82. · 2.38 Impact Factor