ABSTRACT A common problem among elderly people, orthostatic hypotension is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which may be caused by medications, the cumulative effects of age- and hypertension-related alterations in blood pressure regulation, or age-associated diseases that impair autonomic function. Evaluation requires multiple blood pressure measurements taken at different times of the day and after meals or medications. Central and peripheral nervous system disorders should be sought, and the laboratory evaluation should concentrate on ruling out diabetes mellitus, amyloidosis, occult malignancy, and vitamin deficiencies. If orthostatic hypotension is detected, it should be considered a risk factor for adverse outcomes and treated first with nonpharmacologic interventions, including the withdrawal of potentially hypotensive medications. In patients with hypertension and orthostatic hypotension, the judicious treatment of hypertension may be helpful. For persistent, symptomatic orthostatic hypotension caused by autonomic failure, pharmacologic interventions include fludrocortisone, midodrine, and a variety of other agents. The careful evaluation and management of orthostatic hypotension will hopefully result in a significant reduction in falls, syncope, and fractures, and an attenuation of functional decline in elderly patients.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Lewis A Lipsitz, Jun 24, 2015
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ABSTRACT: To describe the frequency of orthostatic hypotension and hypertension and associations with risk factors in a cohort of persons with long-term Type 1 diabetes (n=440) participating in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Evaluations included detailed medical history, electrocardiography (ECG), and laboratory tests. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in supine and standing positions. Standing decrease in systolic (SBP) or diastolic (DBP) BP of at least 20 or 10 mmHg, respectively, was defined as orthostatic hypotension; increase of SBP from <140 to >or=140 mmHg or DBP from <90 to >or=90 mmHg was defined as orthostatic hypertension. Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension was 16.1% and 15.2%, respectively. Some ECG measurements of cardiac autonomic dysfunction were significantly associated with orthostatic hypotension. Association between SBP and orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension were significant [odds ratio, 1.02 (95% confidence interval, or CI, 1.01-1.05) and 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.04), per 1 mmHg, respectively] after adjusting for confounders. Interaction between SBP and age was observed. SBP was significantly associated with orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension in people <or=40 years old [1.35 (1.02-1.78) and 1.12 (1.05-1.18), respectively]. Results showed that measurements derived from the ECG can help describe an individual at increased risk of having postural BP changes. Moreover, SBP was associated with postural BP changes among individuals who were <40 years of age with long-term Type 1 diabetes.Journal of diabetes and its complications 04/2008; 23(2):83-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2008.01.002 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the associations among uncontrolled hypertension, orthostatic hypotension (OH), and standing balance impairment in the elderly hypertensive patients referred to comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). In a cross-sectional study, a total of 176 elderly hypertensive patients who underwent CGA were divided into OH group (n=36) and non-OH group (n=140) according to blood pressure measurement in the supine position, after immediate standing up, and after 1 minute and 3 minutes of standing position. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as blood pressure of ≥140/90 mmHg if accompanied by diabetes mellitus (DM) or chronic kidney disease (CKD), or ≥150/90 mmHg if no DM and no CKD. Standing balance, including immediate standing balance and prolonged standing balance, was assessed in side-by-side and tandem stance. Neither uncontrolled hypertension nor OH was associated with prolonged standing balance impairment in elderly hypertensive patients (P>0.05). Blood pressure decrease after postural change was significantly associated with immediate standing balance impairment in side-by-side and tandem stance (P<0.05). Patients with OH were at greater risk of immediate standing balance impairment in both side-by-side and tandem stance than those without OH (odds ratio [OR] 3.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-9.33, P<0.05; OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.14-8.64, P<0.01). Furthermore, uncontrolled hypertension was associated with immediate standing balance impairment in side-by-side stance (OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.31-6.68, P<0.05). Uncontrolled hypertension, OH, and blood pressure decrease after postural change were associated with immediate standing balance impairment, and therefore, a better understanding of the underlying associations might have major clinical value.Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2015; 10:897-906. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S81283 · 1.82 Impact Factor