Ultrasonographic appearance of tissue is a better indicator of CL function than CL diameter measurement in dairy cows.
ABSTRACT In this study, the ovaries of 99 randomly selected Friesian cows were examined by ultrasonography measuring the diameter and evaluating the appearance of corpora lutea (CLs) in order to assess the most reliable method for their functional classification. Concurrently, blood samples were taken and analyzed for plasma progesterone (P4) concentration. On the basis of the ultrasonographic measurement of the diameter of the CL, three groups were established: (A) CL not detected (n = 30), (B) CL psi < 20 mm (n = 22), and (C) CL psi > or = 20mm (n = 47). On the basis of the ultrasonographic appearance, three different groups were established: (A) CL not detected (n = 30), (B) evolving CL (n = 25), and (C) mid-cycle CL (n = 44). On the basis of the P4 values, CLs were functionally classified in the following three groups: (A) CL not detected when plasma P4 was lower than 1 ng/ml (n = 27), (B) evolving CL when plasma P4 was between 1 and 4 ng/ml inclusive (n = 29), and (C) mid-cycle CL when plasma P4 was more than 4 ng/ml (n = 43). The degree of agreement between plasma P4 concentrations and either ultrasonographic classification (diameter or appearance) was highly significant (P < 0.001). However, the results of the present study suggest that for the evaluation of functional classification of the CL in cows ultrasonographic appearance is more reliable than the evaluation of the diameter.
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ABSTRACT: The accuracy of diagnostic ultrasonography for assessment of ovarian structures was examined by comparing results of in vivo ultrasonography and slices of the excised ovaries. Follicular numbers and diameters, location (right versus left ovary) of the corpus leteum, and presence of fluid-filled cavities within the corpus luteum were evaluated in 23 Holstein heifers on Days 12 or 14 postovulation. The following endpoints were used for each ovary (n = 46): number of follicles 2 to 3 mm, ≥4 mm, ≥7 mm, and ≥11 mm and diameter of largest follicle. Heifers were slaughtered within 4 hours of ultrasound examination. Ovaries were collected and placed in 10% formalin for 12 hours to prevent collapse of the follicles. Slices 2 mm thick were made to expose the follicles. Slicing determinations were made without knowledge of ultrasound results. Comparisons were done by regression and correlation analyses and paired t-tests. The 95% confidence intervals revealed a tendency to slightly overestimate the number of 2 to 3 mm follicles (ultrasonography, 16.4 ± 0.7 SEM; slicing, 15.5 ± 0.8). Zero was centered within the confidence intervals for the number of follicles ≥4 mm, ≥7 mm, and ≥11 mm and diameter of largest follicle. Slopes of the regressions for number of follicles determined by ultrasonography versus slicing ranged from 0.83 for number of follicles ≥4 mm to 1.03 for number of follicles ≥2 mm. Regression R2 values were from 64.5% to 84.9% for various categories and 94.5% for diameter of largest follicle. Correlation coefficients between ultrasonography and slicing results were highly significant (number of follicles 2 to 3 mm, 0.90; ≥4 mm, 0.80; ≥7 mm, 0.89; ≥11 mm, 0.85; ≥2 mm, 0.92 and diameter of largest follicle, 0.97). There was 100% agreement between ultrasound and slicing results for identification of the corpus luteum bearing ovary and presence of cavities within the luteal gland. Diagnostic ultrasonography was determined to be a reliable method of identifying and measuring follicles and detecting mature corpora lutea and luteal cavities in heifers.Theriogenology 01/1987; 28(6):929-936. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Manual palpation or ultrasonographic examination of the cow's genital tract are currently used by veterinarians involved in reproductive management, but knowledge of the potential and the limitations of both methods is important to obtain an optimal accuracy in the diagnosis of physiological and pathological ovarian structures. This review presents the main features of manual and ultrasonographic characteristics of follicles, corpora lutea (with or without a cavity), follicular and lutenized cysts and the reliability of the two methods is compared. Manual diagnosis of follicles <10 mm is rather inaccurate, but ultrasound offers the possibility to diagnose follicles <5 mm and to measure their inner diameter. The predictive values of the presence or absence of a corpus luteum as determined by palpation are similar (78 vs. 75%). Manual or ultrasonographic diagnosis of the growing or regressing corpus luteum is rather difficult. The positive predictive value of a mature corpus luteum diagnosed by ultrasonography is lower (87%) than the negative predictive value (92%). Compared to manual palpation, ultrasonography permits a better estimation of the number and to determine more precisely the size of the mature corpus luteum. The positive values for follicular cysts diagnosed by palpation or by ultrasonography are 66 and 74% respectively, and for luteal cysts, the values are 66 and 85%, respectively.Manual palpation or ultrasonography are useful tools to diagnose ovarian structures in the cow. The accuracy of such methods can be enhanced by securing information on the reproductive history of the animal, palpation of uterine horns, vaginal examination or progesterone determinations.The Veterinary Journal 03/2000; 159(2):161-70. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ultrasonography was used once daily to quantify corpora lutea, central luteal cavities, and luteinized tissue during interovulatory intervals (n=66) and during Days 0 to 60 of pregnancy (n=14) in nulliparous Holstein heifers (ovulation=Day 0). The corpus luteum of the estrous cycle was detectable by ultrasonography in most heifers from the day of ovulation (mean, Day 0.5) and extending into the regressive phase beyond the next ovulation (mean, Day 1.4+/-0.2 after the next ovulation). During pregnancy, the corpus luteum was detected until Day 60 (end of study). Maximal central luteal cavity area detected on Days 0 to 20 was used retrospectively to group luteal glands into four cavity categories: no, small, medium, and large. These categories corresponded to approximate cavity diameters of <2 mm, 2 to 5 mm, 6 to 10 mm, and >10 mm, respectively. The incidence of each cavity category was similar between interovulatory intervals and pregnancies (combined incidence, 17/80, 8/80, 33/80, and 22/80 for no, small, medium, and large cavities, respectively; total with cavities, 63/80, 79%). Mean day of first detection of a central cavity was earliest for large cavities during interovulatory intervals (means, Days 4.7, 4.4, and 3.0 for small, medium, and large cavities, respectively; P<0.04) and during pregnancies (means, Days 5.5, 4.2, and 3.3, respectively; NS). However, the day that the cavities reached maximum size (range of means, Days 5.5 to 7.0) did not differ among categories. Mean day of last detection of the central cavity was significantly different among cavity categories during interovulatory intervals (means, Days 9.3, 11.1, and 17.4 for small, medium, and large cavities, respectively) and pregnancies (means, Days 7.0, 8.8, and 20.2, respectively). Time of loss of central cavities was similar between nonbred and pregnant heifers, and there was no significant difference among cavity categories in the length of the interovulatory interval (mean, 20.1 d). Luteal tissue area was not significantly different among cavity categories during interovulatory intervals. There were no indications that cavities were functionally important. Luteal tissue area increased linearly in pregnant heifers on Days 21 to 60 (mean slope, 2.6 mm2/day).Theriogenology 09/1990; 34(3):487-98. · 2.08 Impact Factor