Effects of interleukin-1 beta on the steroid-induced luteinizing hormone surge: role of norepinephrine in the medial preoptic area.
ABSTRACT Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a cytokine, is known to inhibit the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH); however, the mechanism by which it does so is unclear. This study was done to see if this effect is mediated through hypothalamic catecholamines. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and implanted with a push-pull cannula in the medial preoptic area (MPA) of the hypothalamus. They were injected subcutaneously with 30 microg of Estradiol on the day 8 after surgery and with 2mg of Progesterone on day 10 at 1000 h. On the day of perfusion (day 10), the rats were injected with IL-1beta or its vehicle at 1300 h. Perfusate samples from the MPA and blood samples from a jugular catheter were collected from 1300 to 1800 h. Catecholamine concentrations in the perfusate were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-EC and LH levels in the serum using RIA. Norepinephrine release in the MPA of control rats increased significantly at 1530, 1600, and 1630 h paralelling an increase in LH at 1600 h. In contrast, IL-1beta treatment blocked the LH surge and the rise in norepinephrine release in the MPA. No changes were observed in dopamine release, both in control and IL-treated animals. These results demonstrate for the first time that IL-induced suppression of the LH surge is probably mediated through inhibition of norepinephrine release in the MPA.
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ABSTRACT: We have reported recently that central administration of both the alpha- and beta-subtypes of the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibited the estrogen-progesterone-induced LH surge in ovariectomized (ovx) rats. This inhibition was probably due to a central effect, since IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta also suppressed the in vitro LHRH output from the hypothalami of steroid-primed ovx rats. Whether IL-1 inhibits LHRH release by a direct action or via some other neuronal system is not known. Since IL-1 reportedly stimulates the release of POMC peptides, which are known to be inhibitory to the LHRH-LH axis, we have tested the hypothesis that the inhibitory influence of IL-1 may be mediated via activation of hypothalamic opioid peptides. Ovx rats, preimplanted with cannulae in the third ventricle of the brain, were injected with 30 micrograms estradiol benzoate, followed by 2 mg progesterone 48 h later. Three hours after P injection, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, or saline (SAL) was injected intracerebroventricularly (30 ng/3 microliters) at 1300 h, followed immediately by iv infusion of SAL or the opiate antagonist naloxone hydrochloride (NAL; 2 mg/0.6 ml.h) for 2 h. Plasma LH levels were measured in blood samples withdrawn hourly until 1800 h. Both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta blocked the afternoon LH surge. NAL infusion into control SAL-injected rats did not alter the LH surge; however, it reversed the IL-1 alpha- and IL-1 beta-induced suppression of the LH surge. To determine whether this reversal of IL-1 suppression of the LH surge was due to NAL action at the hypothalamic level, the preoptic area-medial basal hypothalamus of similarly primed ovx rats was obtained at 1300 h and incubated in vitro in the presence of 10 nM IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta with or without 100 micrograms/ml NAL. Both subtypes of IL-1 suppressed LHRH output significantly. NAL alone did not affect LHRH release, but it completely reversed the inhibitory effects of the cytokine on LHRH release. These results suggest that IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta inhibit LHRH-LH release by stimulating the activity of hypothalamic endogenous opioid peptide systems.Endocrinology 12/1990; 127(5):2381-6. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC) and Palkovits' microdissection technique were used to measure norepinephrine (NE) concentrations in the medial preoptic area (MPA) and arcuate nucleus (AN) during various stages of the estrous cycle. NE was measured seven times at 2-h intervals between 1000 h and 2200 h on the days of proestrus and diestrus in young (4-month-old) rats and four times at 2-h intervals between 1400 h and 2000 h in old (20-22-month-old) persistently diestrous rats. On the day of proestrus in young animals, NE increased progressively from low levels at 1000 h to peak levels at 2000 h, followed by a sharp decline at 2200 h. In contrast, no changes in NE occurred on the day of diestrus. Unlike the young proestrous rats, but similar to the young diestrous rats, no changes in NE concentrations either in the MPA or in the AN occurred in the old persistently diestrous rats. These data demonstrate that NE concentrations in the MPA and AN change during the estrous cycle. We believe the increase in NE on the afternoon of proestrus is related to the surge in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) that occurs simultaneously in this stage of the estrous cycle. The lack of change in NE concentrations in the young diestrous and persistently diestrous old animals is consistent with the well-established absence of changes in serum LH in these animals.Brain Research Bulletin 02/1995; 38(6):561-4. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have provided evidence that the stimulatory effects of intravenous interleukin-1 (IL-1) on neurosecretory neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVH) that express corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) depend specifically on the integrity of catecholaminergic projections originating in caudal medulla. Here we report on experiments designed to test alternative means by which circulating IL-1 might access medullary aminergic neurons, including mechanisms involving sensory components of the vagus, the area postrema, or perivascular cells bearing IL-1 receptors. Neither abdominal vagotomy nor area postrema lesions reliably altered Fos expression induced in the medulla or PVH in response to a moderately suprathreshold dose of IL-1beta. Cytokine-stimulated increases in CRF mRNA in the PVH were also unaffected by either ablation. By contrast, systemic administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin resulted in parallel dose-related attenuations of IL-1 effects in hypothalamus and medulla. Microinjections of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; >/=10 ng) in rostral ventrolateral medulla, the principal seat of IL-1-sensitive neurons that project to the PVH, provoked discrete patterns of cellular activation in hypothalamus and medulla that mimicked those seen in response to intravenous IL-1. We interpret these findings as supporting the hypothesis that paracrine effects of PGE2 released from perivascular cells in the medulla as a consequence of IL-1 stimulation and, acting through prostanoid receptors on or near local aminergic neurons that project to the PVH, contribute to the stimulatory effects of increased circulating IL-1 on neurons constituting the central limb of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.Journal of Neuroscience 09/1997; 17(18):7166-79. · 6.91 Impact Factor