Article

Effects of deep brain stimulation and levodopa on postural sway in Parkinson's disease.

Department of Electronics, Computer Science and Systems, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.58). 10/2002; 73(3):267-74.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To quantify postural sway in subjects with Parkinson's disease and elderly controls, and determine the effects of Parkinson's disease, deep brain stimulation, levodopa, and their interactions on postural control during quiet stance.
Centre of foot pressure (CoP) displacement under each foot was measured during three 60 s trials of quiet stance with eyes open in 11 controls and six patients with Parkinson's disease. Subjects with Parkinson's disease were tested in four treatment conditions: off both deep brain stimulation and levodopa (off condition); on deep brain stimulation; on levodopa; and on both deep brain stimulation and levodopa. The variables extracted from CoP included: root mean square distance (rms), mean velocity, 95% power frequency (f(95%)), area of the 95% confidence ellipse (ellipse area), direction of its major axis (mdir), and postural asymmetry between the feet.
rms and area of postural sway were larger than normal in subjects with Parkinson's disease in the off condition, increased further with levodopa, and significantly decreased with deep brain stimulation. Mean velocity and f(95%) were also larger than normal but were restored to normal by all treatments, especially by deep brain stimulation. The combined effect of deep brain stimulation and levodopa resulted in a postural sway that was an average of the effect of each treatment individually. Levodopa increased sway more in the mediolateral than in the anterior-posterior direction. Subjects with Parkinson's disease had asymmetrical mean velocity and f(95%) between the feet, and this asymmetry increased with levodopa but decreased with deep brain stimulation. The f(95%) of the CoP correlated with tremor, posture, and gait subcomponents of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale.
Subjects with Parkinson's disease have abnormal postural sway in stance. Treatment with levodopa increases postural sway abnormalities, whereas treatment with deep brain stimulation improves postural sway. Quantitative evaluation of static posturography may be a useful adjunct to clinical measures in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Full-text

Available from: Lorenzo Chiari, May 30, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
101 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Balance dysfunction (BD) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a disabling symptom, difficult to treat and predisposing to falls. The dopaminergic drugs or deep brain stimulation does not always provide significant improvements of BD and rehabilitative approaches have also failed to restore this condition. In this study, we investigated the suitability of quantitative posturographic indicators to early identify patients that could develop disabling BD. Parkinsonian patients not complaining of a subjective BD and controls were tested using a posturographic platform (PP) with open eyes (OE) and performing a simple cognitive task [counting (OEC)]. We found that patients show higher values of total standard deviation (SD) of body sway and along the medio-lateral (ML) axis during OE condition. Furthermore, total and ML SD of body sway during OE condition and total SD of body sway with OEC were higher than controls also in a subgroup of patients with normal Berg Balance Scale. We conclude that BD in Parkinsonian patients can be discovered before its appearance using a PP and that these data may allow developing specific rehabilitative treatment to prevent or delay their onset.
    Parkinson's Disease 04/2015; · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postural instability is a major source of disability in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (GPI-DBS) improves clinician-rated balance control but there have been few quantitative studies of its interactive effects with levodopa (L-DOPA). The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term and interactive effects of GPI-DBS and L-DOPA on objective measures of postural stability in patients with longstanding IPD. Static and dynamic posturography during a whole-body leaning task were performed in 10 IPD patients with bilateral GPI stimulators under the following conditions: untreated (OFF); L-DOPA alone; DBS alone; DBS+L-DOPA, and in 9 healthy Control subjects. Clinical status was assessed using the UPDRS and AIMS Dyskinesia Scale. Static sway was greater in IPD patients in the OFF state compared to the Control subjects and was further increased by L-DOPA and reduced by GPI-DBS. In the dynamic task, L-DOPA had a greater effect than GPI-DBS on improving Start Time, but reduced the spatial accuracy and directional control of the task. When the two therapies were combined, GPI-DBS prevented the L-DOPA induced increase in static sway and improved the accuracy of the dynamic task. The findings demonstrate GPI-DBS and L-DOPA have differential effects on temporal and spatial aspects of postural control in IPD and that GPI-DBS counteracts some of the adverse effects of L-DOPA. Further studies on larger numbers of patients with GPI stimulators are required to confirm these findings and to clarify the contribution of dyskinesias to impaired dynamic postural control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Gait & posture 04/2015; 41(4). DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.03.346 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The time course of the center of pressure (CoP) during human quiet standing, corresponding to body sway, is a stochastic process, influenced by a variety of features of the underlying neuro-musculo-skeletal system, such as postural stability and flexibility. Due to complexity of the process, sway patterns have been characterized in an empirical way by a number of indices, such as sway size and mean sway velocity. Here, we describe a statistical approach with the aim of estimating "universal" indices, namely parameters that are independent of individual body characteristics and thus are not "hidden" by the presence of individual, daily, and circadian variations of sway; in this manner it is possible to characterize the common aspects of sway dynamics across healthy young adults, in the assumption that they might reflect underlying neural control during quiet standing. Such universal indices are identified by analyzing intra and inter-subject variability of various indices, after sorting out individual-specific indices that contribute to individual discriminations. It is shown that the universal indices characterize mainly slow components of sway, such as scaling exponents of power-law behavior at a low-frequency regime. On the other hand, most of the individual-specific indices contributing to the individual discriminations exhibit significant correlation with body parameters, and they can be associated with fast oscillatory components of sway. These results are consistent with a mechanistic hypothesis claiming that the slow and the fast components of sway are associated, respectively, with neural control and biomechanics, supporting our assumption that the universal characteristics of postural sway might represent neural control strategies during quiet standing. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
    03/2015; 3(3). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12329