Metalloenzyme-like activity of Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid - Cu-dependent catalytic conversion of dopamine, cholesterol, and biological reducing agents to neurotoxic H2O2
ABSTRACT Beta-amyloid (Abeta) 1-42, implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, forms an oligomeric complex that binds copper at a CuZn superoxide dismutase-like binding site. Abeta.Cu complexes generate neurotoxic H(2)O(2) from O(2) through Cu(2+) reduction, but the reaction mechanism has been unclear. We now report that Abeta1-42, when binding up to 2 eq of Cu(2+), generates the H(2)O(2) catalytically by recruiting biological reducing agents as substrates under conditions where the Cu(2+) or reducing agents will not form H(2)O(2) themselves. Cholesterol is an important substrate for this activity, as are vitamin C, L-DOPA, and dopamine (V(max) for dopamine = 34.5 nm/min, K(m) = 8.9 microm). The activity was inhibited by anti-Abeta antibodies, Cu(2+) chelators, and Zn(2+). Toxicity of Abeta in neuronal culture was consistent with catalytic H(2)O(2) production. Abeta was not toxic in cell cultures in the absence of Cu(2+), and dopamine (5 microm) markedly exaggerated the neurotoxicity of 200 nm Abeta1-42.Cu. Therefore, microregional catalytic H(2)O(2) production, combined with the exhaustion of reducing agents, may mediate the neurotoxicity of Abeta in Alzheimer's disease, and inhibitors of this novel activity may be of therapeutic value.
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ABSTRACT: As a disease-modifying approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD), clioquinol (CQ) targets beta-amyloid (Abeta) reactions with synaptic Zn and Cu yet promotes metal uptake. Here we characterize the second-generation 8-hydroxy quinoline analog PBT2, which also targets metal-induced aggregation of Abeta, but is more effective as a Zn/Cu ionophore and has greater blood-brain barrier permeability. Given orally to two types of amyloid-bearing transgenic mouse models of AD, PBT2 outperformed CQ by markedly decreasing soluble interstitial brain Abeta within hours and improving cognitive performance to exceed that of normal littermate controls within days. Nontransgenic mice were unaffected by PBT2. The current data demonstrate that ionophore activity, inhibition of in vitro metal-mediated Abeta reactions, and blood-brain barrier permeability are indices that predict a potential disease-modifying drug for AD. The speed of recovery of the animals underscores the acutely reversible nature of the cognitive deficits associated with transgenic models of AD.Neuron 08/2008; 59(1):43-55. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.06.018 · 15.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. There is accumulating evidence that supports the notion that the toxicity associated with human Abeta (both 40 and 42) is dependent on its superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. We developed a novel screening method involving phage display technology to identify novel peptides capable of inhibiting Abeta's neurotoxicity. Two random peptide libraries containing 6-mer and 15-mer peptide inserts were used and resulted in the identification of 25 peptides that bound human Abeta (40 or 42). Here, we show that two of the three most enriched peptides obtained significantly reduced Abeta42's SOD-like activity. A 15-mer peptide reduced Abeta42 neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by a reduction in LDH release. These findings were confirmed in the independent MTT assay. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the 15-mer peptide with Clioquinol, a known inhibitor of Abeta's metal-mediated redox activity, showed the 15-mer peptide to be equipotent to this metal chelator, under the same experimental conditions. These agents represent novel peptides that selectively target and neutralise Abeta-induced neurotoxicity and thus provide promising leads for rational drug development.Neurobiology of aging 06/2008; 31(2):203-14. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.03.023 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Copper metabolism in the brain is far from being completely understood and further studies are needed on the role of copper in the CNS, starting with careful measurements, metal and biological speciation of metabolites on the molecular level, and combining copper concentration in different brain areas with morphological as well as biochemical alteration after Cu-depletion/deficiency. So far a pathological role for copper has been clearly demonstrated in some human genetic diseases (e.g., Menkes' and Wilson's diseases), but other pathological features connected with metal depletion are under investigation in several laboratories. The metabolic interaction between copper and other metal ions in some neurological disorders is also discussed in this contribution.Brain Research Reviews 05/2007; 54(1):19-33. DOI:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2006.10.001 · 5.93 Impact Factor