Molecular identification of SV40 infection in human subjects and possible association with kidney disease
ABSTRACT Simian virus 40 (SV40), a monkey polyomavirus that is believed to have entered the human population through contaminated vaccines, is known to be renotropic in simians. If indeed SV40 is endemic within the human population, the route of transmission is unknown. It was therefore hypothesized that SV40 might be renotropic in humans and be detected more frequently in samples obtained from patients with kidney diseases. This study found that typical polyomavirus cytopathic effects (CPE) were present and SV40 T antigen was detected in CV-1 cells cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or urinary cells obtained from patients with kidney disease and healthy volunteers. DNA sequences homologous to the SV40 viral regulatory genome were detected by PCR in urinary cells from 15 (41%) of 36 patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), 2 (10%) of 20 patients with other kidney diseases, and 1 (4%) of 22 healthy volunteers (FSGS compared with other glomerular disease, P < 0.02; FSGS compared with healthy volunteers, P = 0.003). SV40 viral regulatory region genome was detected from PBMC at similar frequencies in patients with FSGS (35%), other glomerular diseases (20%), and healthy volunteers (22%). SV40 genome was detected by PCR in kidney tissues from 17 (56%) of 30 of patients with FSGS and 4 (20%) of 20 patients with minimal change disease and membranous nephropathy (P < 0.01). Considerable genetic heterogeneity of the viral regulatory region was detected, which argues against laboratory contamination. SV40 genome was localized to renal tubular epithelial cell nuclei in renal biopsies of patients with FSGS by in situ hybridization. This study demonstrates for the first time that human kidney can serve as a reservoir for SV40 replication and that SV40 may contribute to the pathogenesis of kidney disease, particularly FSGS.
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ABSTRACT: From stocks of adenovirus and poliovirus prepared in primary rhesus macaque kidney cells and dating from 1956 to 1961, the time when SV40 contaminated some poliovirus vaccine lots, we have recovered ten isolates of SV40. Of these ten isolates, based on the C-terminal region of T antigen, five novel strains of SV40 have been identified. Additionally, three pairs of isolates were found to be the same strain: one pair was strain 777, one pair was strain 776 archetype, and the third pair represented a novel strain. All strains had identical protein sequences for VP2 and VP3. There were two variants of agnoprotein and the small t antigen and three variants of VP1. These results, and those of others, suggest that a limited number of SV40 strains might exist in rhesus macaques in the United States, and thus determining the origin of the SV40 sequences detected in human tumors might be difficult.Virology 02/2008; 370(1):63-76. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2007.06.045 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In human cancer, a role has been suggested for the human polyomavirus BK, primarily associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis and ureteric stenosis in renal transplant recipients, and with hemorrhagic cystitis in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. After the initial infection, primarily unapparent and without clinical signs, the virus disseminates and establishes a persistent infection in the urinary tract and lymphocytes. There is correlative evidence regarding potential role of polyomavirus BK in cancer. In fact, the BK virus (BKV) DNA (complete genome and/or subgenomic fragments containing the early region) is able to transform embryonic fibroblasts and cells cultured from kidney and brain of hamster, mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey. Nevertheless, transformation of human cells by BKV is inefficient and often abortive. Evidence supporting a possible role for BKV in human cancer has accumulated slowly in recent years, after the advent of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). BKV is known to commonly establish persistent infections in people and to be excreted in the urine by individuals who are asymptomatic, complicating the evaluation of its potential role in development of human cancer. Therefore, there is no certain proof that human polyomavirus BK directly causes the cancer in humans or acts as a cofactor in the pathogenesis of some types of human cancer.Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2005; 204(2):402-6. DOI:10.1002/jcp.20300 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was introduced in the human population by contaminated poliovaccines, produced in SV40-infected monkey cells, between 1955 and 1963. Epidemiological evidence now suggests that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independent of the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated poliovaccines. This evidence includes detection of SV40 DNA sequences in human tissues and of SV40 antibodies in human sera, as well as rescue of infectious SV40 from a human tumor. Detection of SV40 DNA sequences in blood and sperm and of SV40 virions in sewage points to the hematic, sexual, and orofecal routes as means of virus transmission in humans. The site of latent infection in humans is not known, but the presence of SV40 in urine suggests the kidney as a possible site of latency, as it occurs in the natural monkey host. SV40 in humans is associated with inflammatory kidney diseases and with specific tumor types: mesothelioma, lymphoma, brain, and bone. These human tumors correspond to the neoplasms that are induced by SV40 experimental inoculation in rodents and by generation of transgenic mice with the SV40 early region gene directed by its own early promoter-enhancer. The mechanisms of SV40 tumorigenesis in humans are related to the properties of the two viral oncoproteins, the large T antigen (Tag) and the small t antigen (tag). Tag acts mainly by blocking the functions of p53 and RB tumor suppressor proteins, as well as by inducing chromosomal aberrations in the host cell. These chromosome alterations may hit genes important in oncogenesis and generate genetic instability in tumor cells. The clastogenic activity of Tag, which fixes the chromosome damage in the infected cells, may explain the low viral load in SV40-positive human tumors and the observation that Tag is expressed only in a fraction of tumor cells. "Hit and run" seems the most plausible mechanism to support this situation. The small tag, like large Tag, displays several functions, but its principal role in transformation is to bind the protein phosphatase PP2A. This leads to constitutive activation of the Wnt pathway, resulting in continuous cell proliferation. The possibility that SV40 is implicated as a cofactor in the etiology of some human tumors has stimulated the preparation of a vaccine against the large Tag. Such a vaccine may represent in the future a useful immunoprophylactic and immunotherapeutic intervention against human tumors associated with SV40.Virology 02/2004; 318(1):1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2003.09.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor