A meta-analysis of the association between DRD4 polymorphism and Novelty Seeking

School of Business Administration, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel.
Molecular Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.5). 02/2002; 7(7):712-7. DOI: 10.1038/
Source: PubMed


A meta-analytical review of 20 studies (n = 3907) of the association between DRD4 polymorphism and novelty seeking suggests the following conclusions: (a) on average, there is no association between DRD4 polymorphism and novelty seeking (average d = 0.06 with 95% CI of +/- 0.09), where 13 reports suggest that the presence of longer alleles is associated with higher novelty seeking scores and seven reports suggest the opposite; (b) there is a true heterogeneity among the studies (ie, unknown moderators do exist) but the strength of the association between DRD4 polymorphism and novelty seeking in the presence of any (unknown) moderator is likely to be weak; (c) search for moderators has not yielded any reliable explanation for the variability among studies. We propose that to find such moderators, theory-driven research for potential interaction, coupled with larger sample sizes should be employed. The growing availability of powerful statistical techniques, high-throughput genotyping and large numbers of polymorphic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms makes such proposed studies increasingly feasible.

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    • "Inoue- Murayama 2009). The DRD4 molecule is an important component of the dopaminergic system, is linked to many neurological and psychiatric disorders in humans, and may contribute to the guidance of normal behaviours such as novelty seeking (Kluger et al. 2002; Schinka et al. 2002; Reif and Lesch 2003; Ebstein 2006). Studies with humans and domesticated animals however give little information about personality variation in natural environments. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that polymorphisms of the DRD4 gene may be related to behavioural variation in mammals and birds. The purpose of this study was to ascertain a connection between DRD4 genotypes and behavioural patterns in a wild passerine bird during breeding time. We evaluated changes in birds’ parental provisioning behaviour in the presence of a novel object. As a behavioural trait, we measured the duration of feeding interruption from the first time that each bird noticed the novel object until they entered the nest box. We found a gender-specific association between DRD4 gene polymorphism and parental behaviour. Males with a CC genotype delayed feeding for a longer period than those with CT and TT genotypes. No significant effect of genotype on provisioning behaviour was observed among females. We conclude that (i) DRD4 gene polymorphism in wild birds can be associated with behaviour related to fearfulness, and (ii) this effect is supposedly gender-specific during the breeding time, potentially explained by sex differences in parental care or hormonal levels.
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 05/2015; 69(5). DOI:10.1007/s00265-015-1887-z · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    • "In particular, using a large sample size, Shaw et al. (2007) have shown that the 7-repeat allele carriers have a thinner right orbitofrontal/inferior prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Like other polymorphisms findings, some of the initial results regarding DRD4 polymorphism with less statistical power cannot be replicated (Kluger et al., 2002). A recent study showed a robust association between the 7-repeat allele and a slow processing speed (Szekely et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The 5-repeat allele of a common length polymorphism in the gene that encodes the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) is robustly associated with the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substantially exists in Asian populations, which have a lower ADHD prevalence. In this study, we investigated the effect of this allele on microstructural properties of the brain and on its functional activity during externally directed attention-demanding tasks and creative performance in the 765 Asian subjects. For this purpose, we employed diffusion tensor imaging, N-back functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigms, and a test to measure creativity by divergent thinking. The 5-repeat allele was significantly associated with increased originality in the creative performance, increased mean diffusivity (the measure of how the tissue includes water molecules instead of neural and vessel components) in the widespread gray and white matter areas of extensive areas, particularly those where DRD4 is expressed, and reduced task-induced deactivation in the areas that are deactivated during the tasks in the course of both the attention-demanding working memory task and simple sensorimotor task. The observed neural characteristics of 5-repeat allele carriers may lead to an increased risk of ADHD and behavioral deficits. Furthermore, the increased originality of creative thinking observed in the 5-repeat allele carriers may support the notion of the side of adaptivity of the widespread risk allele of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 02/2015; 110. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.01.053 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    • "The association with risk taking was corroborated by research showing that individuals with the 7R allele of the DRD4 gene engage in more financial risk taking compared to those without this genotype (Dreber et al., 2009). Humans with at least one 7R allele show increased levels of physical activity (Faraone et al., 2001; Kluger et al., 2002; Grady et al., 2003, 2005b, 2013; Li et al., 2006) and appear to be more reactive to environmental factors (Sheese et al., 2007; Belsky et al., 2009; Olsson et al., 2011; Grady et al., 2013). The 7R allele is over-represented Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine functional brain activity in response to unpleasant images in individuals with the 7-repeat (7R) allele compared to individuals with the 4-repeat (4R) allele of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene (VNTR in exon 3). Based on the response ready hypothesis, individuals with the DRD4-4R/7R genotype were expected to show greater functional brain activity in response to unpleasant compared to neutral stimuli in specific regions of the frontal, temporal, parietal and limbic lobes, which form the networks involved in attentional, emotional, and preparatory responses. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging activity was studied in 26 young adults (13 with the DRD4-4R/7R genotype and 13 with the DRD4-4R/4R genotype). Participants were asked to look at and subjectively rate unpleasant and neutral images. Results showed increased brain activity in response to unpleasant images compared to neutral images in the right temporal lobe in participants with the DRD4-4R/7R genotype versus participants with the DRD4-4R/4R genotype. The increase in right temporal lobe activity in individuals with DRD4-4R/7R suggests greater involvement in processing negative emotional stimuli. Intriguingly, no differences were found between the two genotypes in the subjective ratings of the images. The findings corroborate the response ready hypothesis, which suggests that individuals with the 7R allele are more responsive to negative emotional stimuli compared to individuals with the 4R allele of the DRD4 gene.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 11/2014; 231(1). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.10.021 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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