Molecular Imprinted Polymer Coated QCM for the Detection of Nandrolone
ABSTRACT An acoustic wave sensor coated with an artificial biomimetic recognition element has been developed to selectively screen for nandrolone in the liquid phase. A highly specific covalently imprinted polymer (MIP) was spin coated onto one electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as a thin permeable film. Selective rebinding of the nandrolone was observed as a frequency shift in the QCM for concentrations up to 0.2 ppm with the sensor binding shown to favour nandrolone over analogous compounds.
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ABSTRACT: The theoretical sensitivity of Love wave and layer-guided shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH-APM) sensors for viscoelastic guiding layers and general loading by viscoelastic materials is developed. A dispersion equation previously derived for a system of three rigidly coupled elastic mass layers is modified so that the second and third layers can be viscoelastic. The inclusion of viscoelasticity into the second, wave guiding layer, introduces a damping term, in addition to a phase velocity shift, into the response of the acoustic wave system. Both the waveguiding layer and the third, perturbing layer, are modeled using a Maxwell model of viscoelasticity. The model therefore includes the limits of loading of both nonguided shear horizontal surface acoustic wave and acoustic plate mode (APM) sensors, in addition to Love wave and layer-guided SH-APM sensors, by rigidly coupled elastic mass and by Newtonian liquids. The three-layer model is extended to include a viscoelastic fourth layer of arbitrary thickness and so enable mass deposition onto an immersed Love wave or layer-guided SH-APM sensor to be described. A relationship between the change in the complex velocity and the slope of the complex dispersion curve is derived and the similarity to the mass and liquid sensor response of quartz crystal microbalances is discussed. Numerical calculations are presented for the case of a Love wave device in vacuum with a viscoelastic waveguiding layer. It is shown that, while a particular polymer relaxation time may be chosen such that the effect of viscoelasticity on the real part of the phase speed is relatively small, it may nonetheless induce a large insertion loss. The potential or the use of insertion loss as a sensor parameter is discussed. © 2003 American Institute of Physics.Journal of Applied Physics 12/2002; 93(1):675-690. DOI:10.1063/1.1524309 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Techniques employed to profile the pharmacological properties of a molecule in vitro normally require some type of radio-, enzymatic- or fluorescent-labeling of the ligand and/or the receptor. In contrast, biosensor techniques do not require labeling, and they allow virtually any complex to be screened with minimal assay development. Scientists in both academia and industry are now using biosensors in areas that encompass almost all sectors of drug discovery, diagnostics and the life sciences. Assays have been developed for the analysis of small molecules, proteins, oligonucleotides, bacteriophage, viruses, bacteria and cells. In addition, novel biosensor applications are being developed for the predictive profiling of key pharmacokinetic parameters of a molecule (adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity).Current Opinion in Pharmacology 11/2003; 3(5):557-62. DOI:10.1016/j.coph.2003.05.003 · 4.23 Impact Factor