Uncontrolled hypertension due to volume overload contributes to higher left ventricular mass index in CAPD patients
ABSTRACT Hypertension (HT) is common in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and is responsible for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of 'uncontrolled HT' during background therapy in CAPD patients by using office measurements and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We further determined whether intravascular volume status, assessed by inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD) index, contributes to higher blood pressure (BP) and increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI).
Seventy-four CAPD patients were included in the final analysis. All patients underwent echocardiographic examination and received ABPM. Patients undergoing CAPD were categorized into two groups: 'uncontrolled HT' (Group A) and 'normotensive and controlled HT' (Group B). Intravascular volume status was determined using the IVCD index and collapsibility index (CI) on the same day as ABPM.
The prevalence of HT was 84% when using office measurements and 82% when using daytime ABPM. Daytime BP was 147/92 mm Hg by office measurements and 145/91 mm Hg by ABPM (P>0.05). The prevalence of 'uncontrolled HT' measured by ABPM was 73% (n=54). Patients with uncontrolled HT (Group A) were taking more antihypertensive medications than patients with 'normotension and controlled HT' (Group B, n=20; 1.0+/-0.8 vs 0.5+/-0.7, P=0.008). The IVCD index was higher in Group A than in Group B (9.2+/-2.1 vs 7.7+/-1.9 mm/m(2), P=0.007). There was no correlation between IVCD index and office BP, ABPM measurements or LVMI. The LVMI was also higher in Group A than in Group B (145+/-39 vs 118+/-34 g/m(2), P<0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 24 h diastolic BP and haemoglobin were independent determinants of LVMI.
Uncontrolled HT on background therapy is highly prevalent among volume overloaded CAPD patients. Further long-term prospective studies examining effects of salt restriction and ultrafiltration on BP control and left ventricle wall thickness are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Apelin expressed in endothelial and other tissues including brain and kidney is an adipocytokine defined recently and is emerging an important mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis. The aim of this study was to test whether apelin levels might be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in peritoneal dialysis patients. Patients and methods: Fifty peritoneal dialysis patients (25 female, mean age 41.4 ± 11.9 years, mean dialysis vintage 65.0 ± 35.4 months) and 18 healthy individuals (9 female, mean age 41.7 ± 6.8 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Serum apelin 12 levels, echocardiographic findings and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) were recorded as well as clinical and laboratory data. Results: There were no differences between the patient and the control groups with regard to demographic characteristics. In patient group, LVMI, CIMT, CRP and apelin levels were elevated compared to control group. However there was no association between apelin, LVMI and CIMT. There was a positive correlation between apelin and CRP, which was not statistically significant. When patients were divided into two groups according to the mean serum apelin levels, LVMI, CIMT and CRP were higher in the high apelin group but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: We observed an increased inflammation and CVD risk in peritoneal dialysis patients. However, serum apelin levels seem not to be associated with cardiovascular risk in this group of patients.Renal Failure 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2014.996108 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mortality in dialysis patients is higher than in the general population, and cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of death. Hypertension and volume overload are important risk factors for the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Other factors are mainly represented by hyperparathyroidism, vascular calcification, arterial stiffness and inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare blood pressure (BP) and metabolic parameters with cardiovascular changes [cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), aortic arch calcification (AAC) and LV mass index (LVMI)] between PD and HD patients. 45 patients (23 HD and 22 PD patients) were enrolled. BP measurements, echocardiography and chest X-ray were performed in each patient to determine the LVMI and to evaluate the CTR and AAC. Inflammatory indexes, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and arterial blood gas analysis were also evaluated. LVMI was higher in PD than HD patients (139 ŷ 19 vs. 104 ŷ 22; p = 0.04). In PD patients, a significant correlation between iPTH, C-reactive protein and the presence of LVH was observed (r = 0.70, p = 0.04; r = 0.70, p = 0.03, respectively). The CTR was increased in PD patients as compared to HD patients, while no significant differences in cardiac calcifications were determined. Our data indicate that HD patients present more effective BP control than PD patients. Adequate fluid and metabolic control are necessary to assess the adequacy of BP, which is strongly correlated with the increase in LVMI and with the increased CTR in dialysis patients. PD is a home therapy and allows a better quality of life, but PD patients may present a further increased cardiovascular risk if not adequately monitored.