Hypertension (HT) is common in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and is responsible for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of 'uncontrolled HT' during background therapy in CAPD patients by using office measurements and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We further determined whether intravascular volume status, assessed by inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD) index, contributes to higher blood pressure (BP) and increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI).
Seventy-four CAPD patients were included in the final analysis. All patients underwent echocardiographic examination and received ABPM. Patients undergoing CAPD were categorized into two groups: 'uncontrolled HT' (Group A) and 'normotensive and controlled HT' (Group B). Intravascular volume status was determined using the IVCD index and collapsibility index (CI) on the same day as ABPM.
The prevalence of HT was 84% when using office measurements and 82% when using daytime ABPM. Daytime BP was 147/92 mm Hg by office measurements and 145/91 mm Hg by ABPM (P>0.05). The prevalence of 'uncontrolled HT' measured by ABPM was 73% (n=54). Patients with uncontrolled HT (Group A) were taking more antihypertensive medications than patients with 'normotension and controlled HT' (Group B, n=20; 1.0+/-0.8 vs 0.5+/-0.7, P=0.008). The IVCD index was higher in Group A than in Group B (9.2+/-2.1 vs 7.7+/-1.9 mm/m(2), P=0.007). There was no correlation between IVCD index and office BP, ABPM measurements or LVMI. The LVMI was also higher in Group A than in Group B (145+/-39 vs 118+/-34 g/m(2), P<0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 24 h diastolic BP and haemoglobin were independent determinants of LVMI.
Uncontrolled HT on background therapy is highly prevalent among volume overloaded CAPD patients. Further long-term prospective studies examining effects of salt restriction and ultrafiltration on BP control and left ventricle wall thickness are warranted.
"It is known that fluid overload is clearly associated with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in this population. However, management of hypertension is difficult in dialysis patients, and many patients also have uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of antihypertensive drugs . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objective:
Fluid overload is a common and serious problem that leads to severe complications in dialysis patients. We aimed to compare hydration status as measured with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) method in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, as well as investigating the association between blood pressure, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and hydration status.
Materials and methods:
We examined 43 HD and 33 PD patients. Blood pressure was recorded. In each group, echocardiographic examinations were performed on all patients. Hydration status was assessed using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Overhydration was defined as an overhydration (OH)/extracellular water (ECW) ratio of >0.15.
The OH/ECW ratio was significantly higher in PD patients compared to post-HD patients. Overhydration was statistically more frequent in PD than in post-HD patients (30.3% vs. 11.6%, P=0.043). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in both post-HD and PD groups, and LVMI in the PD group were found to be significantly higher in overhydrated patients than non-overhydrated patients. In multiple linear regression analyses, increased OH/ECW ratio was independently associated with higher SBP and LVMI.
Fluid overload may be an even more prevalent and serious problem in PD patients. Overhydration is closely associated with increased blood pressure and LVMI. OH/ECW ratio, a derived parameter of fluid load measured by BIA, was a significant and independent determinant of SBP and LVMI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) develop complex changes in body composition. These changes reflect hydration, nutrition, and body fat, all important elements reflecting patient well-being and efficacy of therapy that should be assessed and monitored as guides to patient management. They are all notoriously difficult to accurately measure in clinical practice and simultaneous abnormalities may obscure detection, as in the malnourished fluid-overloaded patient where body weight is misleadingly stable. Malnutrition is a serious complication in PD that carries an adverse prognosis. Assessment of hydration in PD is important in determining "dry weight" to allow adjustment of dialysis prescription to optimize fluid balance. A number of techniques have been investigated to measure body composition in clinical practice. Of these, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has attracted most interest and seems to be of greatest promise. Cases illustrating different aspects of the use of BIA in PD patients are described, and the background, possible uses, and limitations of BIA in PD patients are discussed. To be of clinical value, BIA must be used to distinguish between extracellular water (which reflects hydration) and body cell mass, or intracellular water (which declines in wasting and malnutrition). The high precision of BIA is ideally suited to detecting changes in body composition and its main role may be in longitudinal monitoring. However, inaccuracy of absolute measurements and variability of normal values in the general population make precise diagnosis of the degree of normality of body composition in an individual subject a more difficult task for body composition analysis.
Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 11/2006; 27(5):496-502. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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