Uncontrolled hypertension due to volume overload contributes to higher left ventricular mass index in CAPD patients.
ABSTRACT Hypertension (HT) is common in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and is responsible for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of 'uncontrolled HT' during background therapy in CAPD patients by using office measurements and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We further determined whether intravascular volume status, assessed by inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD) index, contributes to higher blood pressure (BP) and increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI).
Seventy-four CAPD patients were included in the final analysis. All patients underwent echocardiographic examination and received ABPM. Patients undergoing CAPD were categorized into two groups: 'uncontrolled HT' (Group A) and 'normotensive and controlled HT' (Group B). Intravascular volume status was determined using the IVCD index and collapsibility index (CI) on the same day as ABPM.
The prevalence of HT was 84% when using office measurements and 82% when using daytime ABPM. Daytime BP was 147/92 mm Hg by office measurements and 145/91 mm Hg by ABPM (P>0.05). The prevalence of 'uncontrolled HT' measured by ABPM was 73% (n=54). Patients with uncontrolled HT (Group A) were taking more antihypertensive medications than patients with 'normotension and controlled HT' (Group B, n=20; 1.0+/-0.8 vs 0.5+/-0.7, P=0.008). The IVCD index was higher in Group A than in Group B (9.2+/-2.1 vs 7.7+/-1.9 mm/m(2), P=0.007). There was no correlation between IVCD index and office BP, ABPM measurements or LVMI. The LVMI was also higher in Group A than in Group B (145+/-39 vs 118+/-34 g/m(2), P<0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 24 h diastolic BP and haemoglobin were independent determinants of LVMI.
Uncontrolled HT on background therapy is highly prevalent among volume overloaded CAPD patients. Further long-term prospective studies examining effects of salt restriction and ultrafiltration on BP control and left ventricle wall thickness are warranted.
- SourceAvailable from: Joanne M BargmanPeritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 03/2011; 31(2):218-39.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of nitrates on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Sixty-four PD patients with hypertension were enrolled in this study. All patients accepted antihypertensive drugs at baseline. Thirty-two patients (nitrate group) took isosorbide mononitrate for 24 weeks. The remaining 32 patients (non-nitrate group) took other antihypertensive drugs. Blood pressure (BP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were monitored. Subjects with normal renal function were included as the control group (n = 30). At baseline, plasma ADMA levels in PD patients were significantly higher than the control group, but there was no significant difference in plasma ADMA levels between the two groups. At the end of the 24-week period, BP, LVMI, LVH prevalence and plasma ADMA levels in the nitrate group were significantly lower than those in the non-nitrate group. BP did not show a significant difference between 12 and 24 weeks in the nitrate group with a reduced need for other medication. Logistic regression analysis showed that nitrate supplementation and SBP reduction were independent risk factors of LVMI change in PD patients after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes history and CCB supplementation. It was concluded that organic nitrates favor regression of LVH in hypertensive patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis, and nitrates may be considered for use before employing the five other antihypertensive agents other than nitrates.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(1):1069-79. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The kidneys and the interstitial compartment play a vital role in body fluid regulation. The latter may be significantly altered in renal dysfunction, but experimental studies are lacking. To help define this we measured the subcutaneous interstitial pressure, bioimpedance volumes, and edema characteristics in 10 healthy subjects and 21 patients with obvious edema and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Interstitial edema was quantified by the time taken for a medial malleolar thumb pit to refill and termed the edema refill time. Interstitial pressure was significantly raised in CKD compared to healthy subjects. Total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), interstitial fluid volume, the ratio of the ECFV to the TBW, and segmental extracellular fluid volume were raised in CKD. The ratio of the ECFV to the TBW and the interstitial fluid volume were the best predictors of interstitial pressure. Significantly higher interstitial pressures were noted in edema of 2 weeks or less duration. A significant nonlinear relationship defined interstitial pressure and interstitial fluid volume. Edema refill time was significantly inversely related to interstitial pressure, interstitial compartment volumes, and edema vintage. Elevated interstitial pressure in CKD with obvious edema is a combined function of accumulated interstitial compartment fluid volumes, edema vintage, and tissue mechanical properties. The edema refill time may represent an important parameter in the clinical assessment of edema, providing additional information about interstitial pathophysiology in patients with CKD and fluid retention.Kidney International advance online publication, 5 June 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.208.Kidney International 06/2013; · 7.92 Impact Factor