Article

Perinatal screening for group B streptococci: cost-benefit analysis of rapid polymerase chain reaction.

Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 10/2002; 110(3):471-80. DOI: 10.1542/peds.110.3.471
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the costs and benefits of a group B streptococci screening strategy using a new, rapid polymerase chain reaction test in a hypothetical cohort of expectant mothers in the United States.

Cost-benefit analysis using the human capital method. We developed a decision model to analyze the costs and benefits of a hypothetical group B streptococci screening strategy using a new, rapid polymerase chain reaction test as compared with the currently recommended group B streptococci screening guidelines-prenatal culture performed at 35 to 37 weeks or risk-factor-based strategy with subsequent intrapartum treatment of the expectant mothers with antibiotics to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal infections in their infants.
A hypothetical cohort of pregnant women and their newborns.
Screening strategies for group B streptococci using the new polymerase chain reaction technique, the 35- to 37-week culture, or maternal risk factors.
Infant infections averted, infant deaths, infant disabilities, costs, and societal benefits of healthy infants.
A screening strategy using the new polymerase chain reaction test generates a net benefit of $7 per birth when compared with the maternal risk-factor strategy. For every 1 million births, 80 700 more women would receive antibiotics, 884 fewer infants would become infected with early-onset group B streptococci, and 23 infants would be saved from death or disability. The polymerase chain reaction-based strategy generates a net benefit of $6 per birth when compared with the 35- to 37-week prenatal culture strategy and results in fewer maternal courses of antibiotics (64 080 per million births), fewer perinatal infections with early-onset group B streptococci (218/million), and a reduction in 6 infant deaths and severe infant disability per million births. The benefits hold over a wide range of assumptions regarding key factors in the analysis.
Although additional clinical trials are needed to establish the accuracy of this new polymerase chain reaction test, initial studies suggest that strategies using this test will be superior to the other 2 strategies. Using the rapid polymerase chain reaction test becomes less attractive as the cost of the test increases. The test's greatest strengths lie in its ability to identify women and infants at risk at the time of labor, thereby decreasing the number of false-positives and false-negatives seen with the other 2 strategies and allowing for more accurate and effective intrapartum prophylaxis.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
76 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Management of prelabour rupture of membranes at term (37 weeks gestation or later) (TPROM) remains complicated in the absence of a rapid assay for group B streptococcus (GBS) colonisation. AimsTo evaluate the accuracy and clinical utility of a commercial PCR assay, compared with culture, for detection of GBS colonisation in pregnant women presenting with TPROM. MethodsA prospective study of women presenting with TPROM conducted in a large tertiary hospital (Westmead Hospital, Australia). Five hundred and seventy-four consecutive women with TPROM were enrolled between July 2006 and November 2007. Paired low vaginal and anal swabs were collected from women presenting with TPROM for PCR and culture on GBS selective agar following broth enrichment. Primary outcomes were sensitivity and specificity of PCR compared with GBS selective enrichment culture. Secondary analyses included comparison with a historical but otherwise similar cohort regarding clinical utility, maternal and neonatal outcomes. ResultsPCR sensitivity and specificity were 89.0% (95% CI – 82.8–93.6%) and 97.9% (95% CI – 96.0–99.0%), respectively, compared with culture. 72.3% of women were aware of their GBS PCR status within 3 h of presentation. Compared with the historical cohort, PCR reduced the requirement for intrapartum antibiotics by 25.6% (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes or combined rates of admissions to neonatal intensive care or special care nursery. Conclusions Group B streptococcus PCR is an accurate, rapid, safe and practical alternative to culture for detection of GBS colonisation in pregnant women at the time of TPROM. This method has the potential advantage to reduce costs associated with length of hospital stay.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 11/2013; · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Revista chilena de infectologia: organo oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectologia 04/2007; 24(2):111-116. · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: By shortening the time to pathogen identification and allowing for detection of organisms missed by blood culture, new molecular methods may provide clinical benefits for the management of patients with sepsis. While a number of reviews on the diagnosis of sepsis have recently been published we here present up-to-date new developments including multiplex PCR, mass spectrometry and array techniques. We focus on those techniques that are commercially available and for which clinical studies have been performed and published.
    European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 03/2014; 4(1):1-25.