All-trans-retinoic acid-mediated modulation of p53 during neural differentiation in murine embryonic stem cells.
ABSTRACT All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) plays an important physiological role in embryonic development and is teratogenic in large doses in almost all species. p53, a tumor suppressor gene encodes phosphoproteins, which regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Temporal modulation of p53 by retinoic acid was investigated in murine embryonic stem cells during differentiation and apoptosis. Undifferentiated embryonic stem cells express a high level of p53 mRNA and protein followed by a decrease in p53 levels as differentiation proceeds. The addition of retinoic acid during 8-10 days of differentiation increased the levels of p53 mRNA and protein, accompanied by accelerated neural differentiation and apoptosis. Marked increase in apoptosis was observed at 10-20 h after retinoic acid treatment when compared with untreated controls. Retinoic acid-induced morphological differentiation resulted in predominantly neural-type cells. Maximum increase in p53 mRNA in retinoic acid-treated cells occurred on day 17, whereas maximum protein synthesis occurred on days 14-17, which coincided with increased neural differentiation and proliferation. Increased p53 levels did not induce p21 transactivation, interestingly a decrease in p21 was observed on day 17 on exposure to retinoic acid. The level of p53 declined by day 21 of differentiation. The results demonstrated that retinoic acid-mediated apoptosis preceded the changes in p53 expression, suggesting that p53 induction does not initiate retinoic acid-induced apoptosis during development. However, retinoic acid accelerated neural differentiation and increased the expression of p53 in proliferating neural cells, corroborated by decreased p21 levels, indicating the importance of cell type and stage specificity of p53 function.
Article: Agathisflavone enhances retinoic acid-induced neurogenesis and its receptors α and β in pluripotent stem cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Flavonoids have key functions in the regulation of multiple cellular processes; however, their effects have been poorly examined in pluripotent stem cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that neurogenesis induced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) is enhanced by agathisflavone (FAB, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull). Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (miPS) cells growing as embryoid bodies (EBs) for 4 days were treated with FAB (60 μM) and/or RA (2 μM) for additional 4 days. FAB did not interfere with the EB mitotic rate of mES cells, as evidenced by similar percentages of mitotic figures labeled by phospho-histone H3 in control (3.4% ± 0.4%) and FAB-treated groups (3.5% ± 1.1%). Nevertheless, the biflavonoid reduced cell death in both control and RA-treated EBs from mES cells by almost 2-fold compared with untreated EBs. FAB was unable, by itself, to induce neuronal differentiation in EBs after 4 days of treatment. On the other hand, FAB enhanced neuronal differentiation induced by RA in both EBs of mES and miPS. FAB increased the percentage of nestin-labeled cells by 2.7-fold (mES) and 2.4 (miPS) and β-tubulin III-positive cells by 2-fold (mES) and 2.7 (miPS) in comparison to RA-treated EBs only. FAB increased the expression of RA receptors α and β in mES EBs, suggesting that the availability of RA receptors is limiting RA-induced neurogenesis in pluripotent stem cells. This is the first report to describe that naturally occurring biflavonoids regulate apoptosis and neuronal differentiation in pluripotent stem cells.Stem cells and development 01/2011; 20(10):1711-21. · 4.15 Impact Factor