Chlamydia pneumoniae activates IKK/I kappa B-mediated signaling, which is inhibited by 4-HNE and following primary exposure.
ABSTRACT Chlamydia pneumoniae may be involved in atherosclerosis by inducing inflammation as well as LDL oxidation. The transcription factor NF-kappa B is found in an active state in atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effect of C. pneumoniae exposure on the NF-kappa B system in human monocytic lineage cells. Short exposure to C. pneumoniae as well as chlamydial heat shock protein 60 activated NF-kappa B, accompanied by increased cytokine production. Incubation with C. pneumoniae-induced depletion of I kappa B-alpha and later I kappa B-epsilon which was preceded by I kappa B kinase complex activation. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an aldehyde LDL oxidation product, was shown to inhibit C. pneumoniae induced NF-kappa B activation by preventing I kappa B phosphorylation/proteolysis. During long-term incubation with C. pneumoniae I kappa B-alpha returned to baseline, whereas the levels of I kappa B-epsilon and p65 were upregulated. Interestingly, long-term preincubation with C. pneumoniae selectively prevented restimulation by this microorganism, which appears to be at least partly facilitated by inhibition of I kappa B proteolysis. C. pneumoniae-induced NF-kappa B activation as well as the inhibition of that effect under certain conditions may contribute to chronic inflammation with potential relevance to vascular disease.
- SourceAvailable from: Achim Leutz[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent reports link C. pneumoniae infection of arteriosclerotic lesions to the precipitation of acute coronary syndromes, which also feature tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) overexpression. We investigated whether or not C. pneumoniae can induce thrombogenicity by upregulation of procoagulant proteins. Human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells were infected with a strain of C. pneumoniae isolated from an arteriosclerotic coronary artery. Tissue factor, PAI-1, and interleukin-6 expression was increased in infected cells. Concomitantly, NF-kappaB was activated and IkappaBalpha degraded. p50/p65 heterodimers were identified as the components responsible for the NF-kappaB activity. These data provide evidence that C. pneumoniae infection can induce procoagulant protein and proinflammatory cytokine expression. This cellular response is accompanied by activation of NF-kappaB. Our results demonstrate how C. pneumoniae infection may initiate acute coronary syndromes.Circulation 10/1999; 100(13):1369-73. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Rel/NF-kappa B transcription factors represent the paradigm of regulation of transcriptional activation through sub-cellular localization. In unstimulated cells, NK-kappa B exists in an inactive state in the cytoplasm complexed to the inhibitory I kappa B molecules. Upon stimulation, I kappa B is rapidly degraded, freeing NF-kappa B to translocate to the nucleus and to activate the expression of its target genes. In this chapter, we will summarize what is known about the structure of I kappa B molecules, their functions, the mechanisms of I kappa B degradation, and the most common upstream signaling pathway (that is, serine phosphorylation) that leads to I kappa B degradation. Finally, we will discuss alternative mechanisms for induction of NF-kappa B through regulation of I kappa B activity.Seminars in Cancer Biology 05/1997; 8(2):75-82. · 7.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extensively oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a modulator of atherogenesis, down-regulates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. We investigated whether 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a prominent aldehyde component of ox-LDL, represents one of the inhibitory substances. NF-kappaB activation by stimuli such as LPS, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and phorbol ester, but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF), was reversibly inhibited by HNE in a dose-dependent manner in human monocytic cells, whereas AP-1 binding was unaffected. Using similar HNE concentrations, LPS-induced kappaB- and TNF or IL-8 promoter-dependent transcription was prevented. Furthermore, pretreatment with HNE suppressed TNF production but not lactate dehydrogenase levels. Under these conditions the binding of LPS to monocytic cells was not significantly affected. However, induced proteolysis of the inhibitory proteins IkappaB-alpha, IkappaB-beta, and, at a later time point, IkappaB-epsilon was prevented. This is not due to inhibition of the proteasome, the major proteolytic activities of which remain unaffected, but rather to a specific prevention of the activation-dependent phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha. This is the first report which demonstrates that HNE specifically inhibits the NF-kappaB/Rel system. Down-modulation of NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression may contribute at certain stages of atherosclerosis to low levels of chronic inflammation and may also be involved in other inflammatory/degenerative diseases.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1999; 274(17):11611-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor