Chlamydia pneumoniae activates IKK/I kappa B-mediated signaling, which is inhibited by 4-HNE and following primary exposure.
ABSTRACT Chlamydia pneumoniae may be involved in atherosclerosis by inducing inflammation as well as LDL oxidation. The transcription factor NF-kappa B is found in an active state in atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effect of C. pneumoniae exposure on the NF-kappa B system in human monocytic lineage cells. Short exposure to C. pneumoniae as well as chlamydial heat shock protein 60 activated NF-kappa B, accompanied by increased cytokine production. Incubation with C. pneumoniae-induced depletion of I kappa B-alpha and later I kappa B-epsilon which was preceded by I kappa B kinase complex activation. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an aldehyde LDL oxidation product, was shown to inhibit C. pneumoniae induced NF-kappa B activation by preventing I kappa B phosphorylation/proteolysis. During long-term incubation with C. pneumoniae I kappa B-alpha returned to baseline, whereas the levels of I kappa B-epsilon and p65 were upregulated. Interestingly, long-term preincubation with C. pneumoniae selectively prevented restimulation by this microorganism, which appears to be at least partly facilitated by inhibition of I kappa B proteolysis. C. pneumoniae-induced NF-kappa B activation as well as the inhibition of that effect under certain conditions may contribute to chronic inflammation with potential relevance to vascular disease.
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis of macrophage foam cells loaded with modified/oxidized lipids is implicated in destabilization of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in humans. Concentration of HNE, main aldehydic product of plasma LDL peroxidation, elevates in atherosclerotic lesions as well as in cultured cells under oxidative stress. Although this reactive aldehyde has been shown to promote apoptosis with the involvement of p38 MAPK and JNK in various mammalian cell lines, roles of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins remain to be deciphered. We demonstrated that HNE-induced apoptosis was accompanied by concurrent downregulations of antiapoptotic Bcl-x(L) and Mcl-1 as well as upregulation of proapoptotic Bak. Furthermore, phoshorylation of Bcl-2 at Thr56, Ser70, and probably more phosphorylation sites located on N-terminal loop domain associated with HNE-induced apoptosis in both U937 and HeLa cells while ectopic expression of a phospho-defective Bcl-2 mutant significantly attenuated apoptosis. In parallel to this, HNE treatment caused release of proapoptotic Bax from Bcl-2. Pharmacological inhbition of IKK inhibited HNE-induced Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Similarly, silencing IKKα and -β both ended up with abrogation of Bcl-2 phosphorylation along with attenuation of apoptosis. Moreover, both IKKα and -β coimmunoprecipitated with Bcl-2 and in vitro kinase assay proved the ability of IKK to phosphorylate Bcl-2. In view of these findings and considering HNE inhibits DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) through prevention of IκB phosphorylation/ubiquitination/proteolysis, IKK appears to directly interfere with Bcl-2 activity through phosphorylation in HNE-mediated apoptosis independent of NF-κB signaling.Journal of Cellular Physiology 11/2012; 227(11):3556-65. DOI:10.1002/jcp.24057 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health. Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970-1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010-2013). New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day. Given the enormity of this field, this review focuses on biochemical concepts of lipid peroxidation, production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of two main omega-6 fatty acids lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA) and, in particular, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), summarizing not only its physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival, but also its cytotoxic role inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death. Finally, overviews of in vivo mammalian model systems used to study the lipid peroxidation process, and common pathological processes linked to MDA and 4-HNE are shown.Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 01/2014; 2014:360438. DOI:10.1155/2014/360438 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA have a broad range of biological properties that can be achieved at the gene expression level. This has been well described in liver, where LC n-3 PUFA modulate the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. However, the complexity of biological pathway modulations and the nature of bioactive molecules are still under investigation. The present study aimed to investigate the dose-response effects of LC n-3 PUFA on the production of peroxidised metabolites, as potential bioactive molecules, and on global gene expression in liver. Hypercholesterolaemic rabbits received by daily oral administration (7 weeks) either oleic acid-rich oil or a mixture of oils providing 0·1, 0·5 or 1 % (groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively) of energy as DHA. Levels of specific peroxidised metabolites, namely 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE)-protein adducts, issued from LC n-3 PUFA were measured by GC/MS/MS in liver in parallel to transcription profiling. The intake of LC n-3 PUFA increased, in a dose-dependent manner, the hepatic production of 4-HHE. At the highest dose, LC n-3 PUFA provoked an accumulation of TAG in liver, which can be directly linked to increased mRNA levels of lipoprotein hepatic receptors (LDL-receptor and VLDL-receptor). In groups 1 and 2, the mRNA levels of microsomal TAG transfer protein decreased, suggesting a possible new mechanism to reduce VLDL secretion. These modulations of genes related to lipoprotein metabolism were independent of PPARα signalling but were probably linked to the activation of the farnesol X receptor pathway by LC n-3 PUFA and/or their metabolites such as HHE.The British journal of nutrition 09/2011; 107(9):1-20. DOI:10.1017/S0007114511004259 · 3.34 Impact Factor