Multiple MPEP administrations evoke anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rats.
ABSTRACT Several lines of evidence suggest a crucial involvement of glutamate in the mechanism of action of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. The involvement of group I mGlu receptors in anxiety and depression has also been proposed. In view of the recent discovery of anxiolytic- or antidepressant-like effects of acute injections of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), a selective and brain penetrable mGlu5 receptor antagonist, we designed the present study to examine anxiolytic- and/or antidepressant-like effects of multiple administrations of this drug. The anxiolytic-like effects of MPEP were evaluated in rats using the conflict drinking test. The antidepressant-like effect was estimated using the rat olfactory bulbectomy model of depression. Seven subsequent injections of MPEP (1 mg/kg) significantly (by 320%) increased the number of shocks accepted during the experimental session in the Vogel test. MPEP given once daily at a dose of 10 mg/kg, restored the learning deficit of bulbectomized rats after 14 days of treatment, remaining without any effect in the sham-operated animals. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced convulsions in mice were not affected by a single injection of MPEP (30 mg/kg) indicating that at this dose MPEP did not block NMDA receptors. The results indicate that the prolonged blockade of mGlu5 receptors exerts anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rats. No tolerance to anxiolytic-like action occurs. The previously mentioned results further indicate that antagonists of group I mGlu receptors may play a role in the therapy of both anxiety and depression.
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ABSTRACT: Major depression is a common, disabling, and often difficult-to-treat illness. Decades of research into the neurobiology and treatment of depression have greatly advanced our ability to manage this disorder. However, a number of challenges remain. A substantial number of depressed patients do not achieve full remission despite optimized treatment. For patients who do achieve resolution of symptoms, depression remains a highly recurrent illness, and repeated episodes are common. Finally, little is known about how depression might be prevented, especially in individuals at increased risk. In the face of these challenges, a number of exciting research efforts are currently under way and promise to greatly expand our knowledge of the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of depression. This review highlights these future prospects for depression research with a specific focus on lines of investigation likely to generate novel, more effective treatment options.Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 02/2006; 8(2):175-89.
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ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu receptors) have emerged as new therapeutic targets for psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression and anxiety with their regulatory roles in glutamatergic transmissions. To date, several ligands selective for each mGlu receptor have been synthesized, and pharmacological significances of these ligands have been demonstrated in animal models. Among them, mGlu2/3 receptor agonists have been proven to be effective for treating schizophrenia and anxiety disorders in clinical studies, which may prove utilities of mGlu receptor ligands for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. This article reviews recent advances in development of each mGlu receptor ligands and their therapeutic potential.The Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal 01/2010; 4:20-36.
Article: In vivo positron emission tomography imaging with [¹¹C]ABP688: binding variability and specificity for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 in baboons.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) dysfunction has been implicated in several disorders. [(11)C]ABP688, a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand targeting mGluR5, could be a valuable tool in the development of novel therapeutics for these disorders by establishing in vivo drug occupancy. Due to safety concerns in humans, these studies may be performed in nonhuman primates. Therefore, in vivo characterization of [(11)C]ABP688 in nonhuman primates is essential. Test-retest studies were performed in baboons (Papio anubis) to compare modeling approaches and determine the optimal reference region. The mGluR5-specific antagonist 3-((2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) was then used in test-block studies, in which ligand binding was measured before and after MTEP administration. Test/block data were analyzed both by calculating changes in binding and using a graphical approach, which allowed estimation of both MTEP occupancy and nonspecific binding. Test-retest results, which have not been previously reported for [(11)C]ABP688, indicated that [(11)C]ABP688 variability is low using an unconstrained two-tissue compartment model. The most appropriate, though not ideal, reference region was found to be the gray matter of the cerebellum. Using these optimal modeling techniques on the test/block data, about 90% occupancy was estimated by the graphical approach. These studies are the first to demonstrate the specificity of [(11)C]ABP688 for mGluR5 with in vivo PET in nonhuman primates. The results indicate that, in baboons, occupancy of mGluR5 is detectable by in vivo PET, a useful finding for proceeding to human studies, or performing further baboon studies, quantifying the in vivo occupancy of novel therapeutics targeting mGluR5.European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2011; 38(6):1083-94. · 4.53 Impact Factor