Thioredoxin reductase regulates AP-1 activity as well as thioredoxin nuclear localization via active cysteines in response to ionizing radiation.
ABSTRACT A recently identified class of signaling factors uses critical cysteine motif(s) that act as redox-sensitive 'sulfhydryl switches' to reversibly modulate specific signal transduction cascades regulating downstream proteins with similar redox-sensitive sites. For example, signaling factors such as redox factor-1 (Ref-1) and transcription factors such as the AP-1 complex both contain redox-sensitive cysteine motifs that regulate activity in response to oxidative stress. The mammalian thioredoxin reductase-1 (TR) is an oxidoreductase selenocysteine-containing flavoprotein that also appears to regulate multiple downstream intracellular redox-sensitive proteins. Since ionizing radiation (IR) induces oxidative stress as well as increases AP-1 DNA-binding activity via the activation of Ref-1, the potential roles of TR and thioredoxin (TRX) in the regulation of AP-1 activity in response to IR were investigated. Permanently transfected cell lines that overexpress wild type TR demonstrated constitutive increases in AP-1 DNA-binding activity as well as AP-1-dependent reporter gene expression, relative to vector control cells. In contrast, permanently transfected cell lines expressing a TR gene with the active site cysteine motif deleted were unable to induce AP-1 activity or reporter gene expression in response to IR. Transient genetic overexpression of either the TR wild type or dominant-negative genes demonstrated similar results using a transient assay system. One mechanism through which TR regulates AP-1 activity appears to involve TRX sub-cellular localization, with no change in the total TRX content of the cell. These results identify a novel function of the TR enzyme as a signaling factor in the regulation of AP-1 activity via a cysteine motif located in the protein.
Article: Metabolic oxidation/reduction reactions and cellular responses to ionizing radiation: a unifying concept in stress response biology.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exposure of eukaryotic cells to ionizing radiation (IR) results in the immediate formation of free radicals that last a matter of milliseconds. It has been assumed that the subsequent alterations in multiple intracellular processes following irradiation is due to the initial oxidative damage caused by these free radicals. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular metabolic oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions can be affected by this initial IR-induced free radical insult and may remain perturbed for minutes, hours, or days. It would seem logical that these cellular redox reactions might contribute to the activation of protective or damaging processes that could impact upon the damaging effects of IR. These processes include redox sensitive signaling pathways, transcription factor activation, gene expression, and metabolic activities that govern the formation of intracellular oxidants and reductants. The physiological manifestations of these radiation-induced alterations in redox sensitive processes have been suggested to contribute to adaptive responses, bystander effects, cell cycle perturbations, cytotoxicity, heat-induced radiosensitization, genomic instability, inflammation, and fibrosis. While a great deal is known about the molecular changes associated with the initial production of free radicals at the time of irradiation, the contribution of perturbations in redox sensitive metabolic processes to biological outcomes following exposure to IR is only recently becoming established. This review will focus on evidence supporting the concept that perturbations in intracellular metabolic oxidation/reduction reactions contribute to the biological effects of radiation exposure as well as new concepts emerging from the field of free radical biology that may be relevant to future studies in radiobiology.Cancer and metastasis reviews 23(3-4):311-22. · 10.57 Impact Factor