Deciphering vascular endothelial cell growth factor/vascular permeability factor signaling to vascular permeability. Inhibition by atrial natriuretic peptide.
ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) was originally described as a potent vascular permeability factor (VPF) that importantly contributes to vascular pathobiology. The signaling pathways that underlie VEGF/VPF-induced permeability are not well defined. Furthermore, endogenous vascular peptides that regulate this important VPF function are currently unknown. We report here that VPF significantly enhances permeability in aortic endothelial cells via a linked signaling pathway, sequentially involving Src, ERK, JNK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT. This leads to the serine/threonine phosphorylation and redistribution of actin and the tight junction (TJ) proteins, zona occludens-1 and occludin, and the loss of the endothelial cell barrier architecture. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibited VPF signaling, TJ protein phosphorylation and localization, and VPF-induced permeability. This involved both guanylate cyclase and natriuretic peptide clearance receptors. In vivo, transgenic mice that overexpress ANP showed significantly less VPF-induced kinase activation and vascular permeability compared with non-transgenic littermates. Thus, ANP acts as an anti-permeability factor by inhibiting the signaling functions of VPF that we define here and by preserving the endothelial cell TJ functional morphology.
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ABSTRACT: The cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is critically involved in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure and intravascular volume homeostasis. Its cGMP-producing GC-A receptor is densely expressed in the microvascular endothelium of the lung and systemic circulation, but the functional relevance is controversial. Some studies reported that ANP stimulates endothelial cell permeability, whereas others described that the peptide attenuates endothelial barrier dysfunction provoked by inflammatory agents such as thrombin or histamine. Many studies in vitro addressed the effects of ANP on endothelial proliferation and migration. Again, both pro- and anti-angiogenic properties were described. To unravel the role of the endothelial actions of ANP in vivo, we inactivated the murine GC-A gene selectively in endothelial cells by homologous loxP/Cre-mediated recombination. Our studies in these mice indicate that ANP, via endothelial GC-A, increases endothelial albumin permeability in the microcirculation of the skin and skeletal muscle. This effect is critically involved in the endocrine hypovolaemic, hypotensive actions of the cardiac hormone. On the other hand the homologous GC-A-activating B-type NP (BNP), which is produced by cardiac myocytes and many other cell types in response to stressors such as hypoxia, possibly exerts more paracrine than endocrine actions. For instance, within the ischaemic skeletal muscle BNP released from activated satellite cells can improve the regeneration of neighbouring endothelia. This review will focus on recent advancements in our understanding of endothelial NP/GC-A signalling in the pulmonary versus systemic circulation. It will discuss possible mechanisms accounting for the discrepant observations made for the endothelial actions of this hormone-receptor system and distinguish between (patho)physiological and pharmacological actions. Lastly it will emphasize the potential therapeutical implications derived from the actions of NPs on endothelial permeability and regeneration.British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2012; 166(2):522-31. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic structure that maintains the homeostasis of the brain and thus proper neurological functions. BBB compromise has been found in many pathological conditions, including neuroinflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1), a chemokine that is transiently and significantly up-regulated during inflammation, is able to disrupt the integrity of BBB and modulate the progression of various diseases, including excitotoxic injury and hemorrhage. In this review, we first introduce the biochemistry and biology of MCP1, and then summarize the effects of MCP1 on BBB integrity as well as individual BBB components.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 09/2013; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits agonist-induced pulmonary edema, but the signaling pathway responsible is not well-defined. In order to investigate the role of natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A), we measured acute lung injury responses in intact mice and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) with normal and disrupted expression of NPR-A. NPR-A wild-type (NPR-A+/+), heterozygote (NPR-A+/-), and knockout mice (NPR-A-/-) mice were anesthetized and treated with thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lung injury was assessed by lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight and by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid protein and cell concentration. No NPR-A genotype differences in lung W/D weight were seen under baseline conditions. TRAP and LPS increased lung W/D weight and BAL fluid cell counts more in NPR-A-/- mice than in NPR-A+/- or NPR-A+/+ mice, but no genotype related differences were seen in TRAP-induced increases in bloodless lung W/D weight or LPS-induced increases in BAL protein concentration. Pretreatment with ANP blocked TRAP-induced increases in lung W/D weight and blunted LPS-induced increases in BAL cell counts and protein concentration in both NPR-A-/- and NPRA+/+ mice. ANP blunted thrombin-induced decreases in transmembrane electrical resistance in PMVECs isolated from both genotypes. The NPR-C specific ligand, cANF also blocked TRAP-induced increases in lung W/D weight and LPS-induced increases in BAL cell count and protein concentration in NPR-A +/+ and NPR-A -/- mice. We conclude that ANP attenuates agonist-induced lung edema in the absence of NPR-A. The protective effect of ANP on agonist-induced lung injury and pulmonary barrier function may be mediated by NPR-C.Journal of Applied Physiology 11/2012; · 3.48 Impact Factor