Pharmacokinetic differences of morphine and morphine-glucuronides are reflected in locomotor activity.
ABSTRACT The main metabolites of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), have been considered to participate in some of the effects of morphine. There is limited knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of morphine and the main metabolites in mice, but mice are widely used to study both the analgesic effects and the psychomotor effects of morphine. The present study aimed to explore pharmacokinetic differences between morphine and morphine-glucuronides in mice after different routes of administration, and to investigate how possible differences were reflected in locomotor activity, a measure of psychostimulant properties. Mice were given morphine, M3G or M6G by different routes of administration. Serum concentrations versus time curves, pharmacokinetic parameters and locomotor activity were determined. Intraperitoneal administration of morphine reduced the bioavailability compared to intravenous and subcutaneous administration, but not so for morphine-glucuronides. The two morphine-glucuronides had similar pharmacokinetics, but morphine demonstrated higher volume of distribution and clearance than morphine-glucuronides. The present results demonstrated no locomotor effect of M3G, but a serum concentration effect relationship for morphine and M6G. When serum concentrations and effect changes were followed over time, there was some right hand shifts with respect to locomotor activity, especially during the declining phase of the concentration curve and particularly for M6G.
Article: Effects of methadone and morphine on c-Fos expression in the rat brain: similarities and differences.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This is the first study designed to compare the pattern of stimulation of c-Fos in selected brain structures after an acute administration of morphine and methadone. Methadone and morphine induced activation of c-Fos protein in the terminal forebrain projecting areas of the brain dopaminergic system, i.e. the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Taking into account generally accepted differences in the potency of pharmacological effects of the two drugs, it is surprising that this effect was most evident after the dose of 5 mg/kg of either drug.Pharmacological reports: PR 58(1):120-4. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The opioid system plays an important role in memory processess. Morphine mimics endogenous opioids by acting on opioid receptor in brain to regulate memory. However, the effects of morphine on spatial memory acquisition are controversial. Also, little evidence has suggested that morphine could affect the retrieval of spatial memory. In the current study, effects of pre-training morphine and naloxone on the acquisition vs. retrieval of spatial reference vs. working memory were examined using discrete water maze tasks in C57BL/6 mice. Pre-training morphine administration (7.5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) impaired the acquisition of both spatial reference memory and working memory. Motivation to escape from the water maze was not affected by morphine. Pre-test morphine also inhibited the retrieval of spatial working memory but not reference memory. The effects of morphine on the acquisition and retrieval of spatial working memory were eliminated by naloxone pretreatment (1mg/kg). These results indicate that morphine could differentially modulate a variety of aspects of spatial memory and these effects are mediated by the mu-opioid receptor.Physiology & Behavior 08/2011; 104(5):754-60. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper is the twenty-fifth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning over a quarter-century of research. It summarizes papers published during 2002 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17).Peptides 09/2003; 24(8):1241-302. · 2.43 Impact Factor