Personality disorders and depression.
ABSTRACT Personality disorders (PDs) were assessed among depressed out-patients by clinical interview before and after antidepressant treatment with fluoxetine to assess the degree of stability of PD diagnoses and determine whether changes in PD diagnoses across treatment are related to the degree of improvement in depressive symptoms.
Three hundred and eighty-four out-patients (55% women; mean age = 39.9 +/- 10.5) with major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosed with the SCID-P were enrolled into an 8 week trial of open treatment with fluoxetine 20 mg/day. The SCID-II was administered to diagnose PDs at baseline and endpoint.
A significant proportion (64%) of our depressed out-patients met criteria for at least one co-morbid personality disorder. Following 8 weeks of fluoxetine treatment, there was a significant reduction in the proportion of patients meeting criteria for avoidant, dependent, passive-aggressive, paranoid and narcissistic PDs. From baseline to endpoint, there was also a significant reduction in the mean number of criteria met for paranoid, schizotypal, narcissistic, borderline, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive, passive aggressive and self-defeating personality disorders. While changes in cluster diagnoses were not significantly related to improvement in depressive symptoms, there were significant relationships between degree of reduction in depressive symptoms (percentage change in HAM-D-17 scores) and degree of change in the number of criteria met for paranoid, narcissistic, borderline and dependent personality disorders.
Personality disorder diagnoses were found to be common among untreated out-patients with major depressive disorder. A significant proportion of these patients no longer met criteria for personality disorders following antidepressant treatment, and changes in personality disorder traits were significantly related to degree of improvement in depressive symptoms in some but not all personality disorders. These findings suggest that the lack of stability of PD diagnoses among patients with current MDD may be attributable in part to a direct effect of antidepressant treatment on behaviours and attitudes that comprise PDs.
Personality and Mental Health 02/2014; 8(1):85-8. DOI:10.1002/pmh.1254 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The impact of personality disorders on the treatment of and recovery from depression is still a controversial topic. The aim of this paper is to provide more information on what has led to this disagreement. Clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scores were assessed among 82 depressed outpatients who were receiving a routine treatment combination of antidepressant medication and psychosocial intervention. The participants were followed up over five visits at 3-month intervals: at the baseline, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Personality disorders were assessed after the last visit in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. These repeated measures were used to explore the impact of personality disorders on HAMD scores by using a linear mixed model. Among the four personality clusters that were used (A, B, C, and mixed), only those in cluster B and in the mixed cluster were found to take significantly longer than those without personality disorders, for reduction in HAMD scores over the course of treatment. In this study, the impact of personality disorders on treatment outcomes varied with the way that the personality disorder variables were described and used as independent predictors. This is because the outcomes were influenced by the impact weight of each personality disorder, even within the same cluster.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2015; 11:725-32. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S80636 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Preliminary data support the implementation of individual metacognitive therapy (MCT) for depression. Given the focus of MCT on transpersonal processes, we hypothesized that this treatment should translate well to a group format. In this study, the effects and feasibility associated with group MCT for depression are reported. Methods: Eleven patients who were consecutively referred by general practitioners to a specialist psychiatric practice in Norway participated in an open trial of the effects and feasibility associated with group MCT for depression. All of the patients met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and were monitored in a baseline period before attending 90-min weekly treatment sessions of group MCT for 10 weeks. The primary symptom outcome measure was severity of depression whilst secondary outcome measures included levels of anxiety, rumination and metacognitive beliefs. We also assessed recovery rates and changes in comorbid Axis I and Axis II diagnoses. Results: Large clinically significant improvements across all measures were detected at post-treatment and these were maintained at follow-up. Based on objectively defined recovery criteria, all patients were classified as recovered at post-treatment and 91% at 6 months follow-up. The intervention was also associated with significant reductions in comorbid diagnoses. Conclusions: These preliminary data indicate that group MCT in the treatment of depression is effective, well accepted and it extends clinical application of MCT for depression to group formats as a potential cost-effective intervention.Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 08/2014; 69(2). DOI:10.3109/08039488.2014.936502 · 1.50 Impact Factor