Altered endothelial Ca2+ regulation after ischemia/reperfusion produces potentiated endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated dilations.
ABSTRACT Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated dilations are potentiated after several pathologies, including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, no study to date has addressed the mechanism by which this potentiation occurs. This study tested the hypothesis that potentiated EDHF-mediated dilations are due to altered endothelial Ca2+ handling after I/R.
Rat middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were isolated after 2 hours of MCA occlusion and 24 hours of reperfusion (or sham surgery). This model has been previously demonstrated to produce potentiated EDHF-mediated dilations. MCAs were studied in a pressurized/perfused vessel chamber equipped for the simultaneous measurement of endothelial Ca2+ (with fura 2) and artery diameter. Measures were made after luminal administration of UTP (P2Y2 purinoceptor agonist), 2 MeS-ATP (P2Y1 purinoceptor agonist), and Br-A23187 (receptor-independent Ca2+ ionophore) for sham and I/R MCAs.
I/R resulted in significantly potentiated UTP-mediated dilations (through a P2Y2 purinoceptor) and endothelial Ca2+ responses in the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin. Endothelial Ca2+ and diameter responses were also significantly potentiated with 2 MeS-ATP (through a P2Y1 purinoceptor) when L-NAME and indomethacin were absent. Br-A23187, a receptor-independent Ca2+ ionophore, produced significantly potentiated endothelial Ca2+ responses after I/R in the presence of L-NAME/indomethacin. Evaluation of artery diameter as a function of endothelial Ca2+ demonstrated no differences between sham and I/R groups.
These findings demonstrate that I/R results in augmented endothelial Ca2+ responses that appear to be downstream of the receptor level. Moreover, these data suggest that this augmented Ca2+ response contributes to the potentiated EDHF-mediated dilations after I/R.
Article: Vascular hypoxic preconditioning relies on TRPV4-dependent calcium influx and proper intercellular gap junctions communication.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated the impact of hypoxia-reoxygenation on endothelial relaxation and aimed to clarify the role of transient receptor potential cation channels V4 (TRPV4) and gap junctions in the protective effect associated with hypoxic preconditioning on the vascular function. By mimicking ischemia-reperfusion in C57BL/6 male mice in vivo, we documented a reduced NO-mediated relaxation and an increased endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH[F])-mediated relaxation. Hypoxic preconditioning, however, restored NO relaxation and further improved the EDH(F) response. We also examined specifically 2 major effectors of the EDH(F) pathway, transient receptor potential cation channels V4 and connexins. We found that in endothelial cells, expression and activity of transient receptor potential cation channels V4 were increased by hypoxic stimuli independently of preconditioning which was interestingly associated with an increase of structural caveolar component caveolin-1 at membrane locations. Gap junctions, however, seemed to directly support EDH(F)-driven preconditioning as connexin 40 and connexin 43 expression increased and as in vivo carbenoxolone treatment completely inhibited the EDH(F) pathway and significantly reduced the protection afforded by preconditioning for the concomitant NO-mediated relaxation. Our work provides evidence on how transient receptor potential cation channels V4 and connexins might participate in preserving vasorelaxation under hypoxia and restoring the NO-mediated pathway in hypoxic preconditioning conditions pointing out caveolae as a common signaling location.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2012; 32(9):2241-9. · 6.37 Impact Factor