Explosive spread and high prevalence of HIV infection among injecting drug users in Togliatti City, Russia
ABSTRACT To establish the prevalence of antibodies to HIV (anti-HIV) and associated risk factors among injecting drug users (IDU) in Togliatti City, Samara Oblast, Russian Federation.
An unlinked anonymous cross-sectional community recruited survey with oral fluid sample collection.
Between September and October 2001, 426 IDU were recruited by trained fieldworkers. Participants completed an interviewer administered questionnaire, and oral fluid samples were tested for anti-HIV. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared potential risk factors for anti-HIV.
Anti-HIV prevalence was 56% (234/418). Three-quarters of anti-HIV-positive IDU (74%) were unaware of their positive status. In an adjusted model, the odds of HIV infection were higher among IDU who had ever injected home-produced drugs, who reported injecting with used needles and syringes in the past 4 weeks, and who were living in one particular district of the city (Komsomolksii).
The high prevalence of HIV, and a recent increase in HIV detected through routine screening tests since 2000, suggests that an explosive epidemic has occurred among IDU in Togliatti City. In the face of currently inadequate HIV prevention coverage among IDU, this has urgent implications for maximizing the distribution of sterile injecting equipment as well as for enhancing sexual risk reduction. Recognizing that it is likely that similar explosive epidemics are taking place in other Russian cities, we recommend community-wide HIV prevention coverage supported by city and state policies oriented to harm reduction.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Amongst injecting drug users (IDUs), HIV is transmitted sexually and parenterally, but HCV is transmitted primarily parenterally. We assess and model the antibody prevalence of HCV amongst HIV-infected IDUs (denoted as HCV-HIV co-infection prevalence) and consider whether it proxies the degree of sexual HIV transmission amongst IDUs. METHODS: HIV, HCV and HCV-HIV co-infection prevalence data amongst IDU was reviewed. An HIV/HCV transmission model was adapted. Multivariate model uncertainty analyses determined whether the model's ability to replicate observed data trends required the inclusion of sexual HIV transmission. The correlation between the model's HCV-HIV co-infection prevalence and estimated proportion of HIV infections due to injecting was evaluated. RESULTS: The median HCV-HIV co-infection prevalence (prevalence of HCV amongst HIV-infected IDUs) was 90% across 195 estimates from 43 countries. High HCV-HIV co-infection prevalences (>80%) occur in most (75%) settings, but can be lower in settings with low HIV prevalence (<10%) or high HIV/HCV prevalence ratios (HIV prevalence divided by HCV prevalence>0.75). The model without sexual HIV transmission reproduced some data trends but could not reproduce any epidemics with high HIV/HCV prevalence ratios (>0.85) or low HCV-HIV co-infection prevalence (<60%) when HIV prevalence>10%. The model with sexual HIV transmission reproduced data trends more closely. The proportion of HIV infections due to injecting correlated with HCV-HIV co-infection prevalence; suggesting that up to 80/60/<20% of HIV infections could be sexually transmitted in settings with HCV-HIV co-infection prevalence between 50-60/70-80/>90%. CONCLUSION: Substantial sexual HIV transmission may occur in many IDU populations; HCV-HIV co-infection prevalence could signify its importance.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 02/2013; 132(1-2):172-81.. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.01.020 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Following a heroin shortage, fentanyl and 3-methylfentanyl, known as "China White" and "White Persian", have become the most widely used drugs, along with amphetamine, among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia. In order to assess the relationships between the injection of fentanyl and amphetamine, and levels of HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, 350 current IDUs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling for an interviewer-administered unlinked cross-sectional survey and HIV testing. IDUs were categorised into groups based on self-report of the main drug used within the last 28 days. 77% (256/331) of participants reported fentanyl and 23% (75/331) amphetamine as their main drug of injection. HIV prevalence was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.45-35.51) and 62% (95% CI: 56.97-67.03) among amphetamine and fentanyl injectors, respectively. After adjustment, fentanyl injectors had three times the odds of being HIV positive (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.89; 95% CI: 1.55-5.39). They also had higher odds for injecting in the street with a previously used needle/syringe (AOR=2.39; 95% CI: 1.14-5.04) and sharing a needle/syringe with somebody known to have HIV (AOR=3.00, 95% CI: 1.33-6.79). Fentanyl injectors also had higher odds for lifetime overdose (AOR=3.02, 95% CI: 1.65-5.54). The injection of fentanyl is associated with elevated injecting risk behaviour derived from injection practice and situational risk factors, and needs urgently targeted interventions.International Journal of Drug Policy 05/2009; 21(1):56-63. DOI:10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.02.007 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this analysis was to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and testing patterns among injection drug users (IDUs) in St. Petersburg, Russia. HIV prevalence among 387 IDUs in the sample was 50%. Correlates of HIV-positive serostatus included unemployment, recent unsafe injections, and history/current sexually transmitted infection. Seventy-six percent had been HIV tested, but only 22% of those who did not report HIV-positive serostatus had been tested in the past 12 months and received their test result. Correlates of this measure included recent doctor visit and having been in prison or jail among men. Among the 193 HIV-infected participants, 36% were aware of their HIV-positive serostatus. HIV prevalence is high and continuing to increase in this population. Adequate coverage of HIV testing has not been achieved, resulting in poor knowledge of positive serostatus. Efforts are needed to better understand motivating and deterring factors for HIV testing in this setting.AIDS and Behavior 11/2008; 14(4):932-41. DOI:10.1007/s10461-008-9469-y · 3.49 Impact Factor