Antiangiogenic effect of a highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on gastric ulcer healing in rats.
ABSTRACT Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been shown to produce fewer gastrointestinal adverse reactions when compared with conventional nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and they suppress angiogenesis in tumors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of highly selective COX-2 inhibitor on angiogenesis and protein expression of angiogenic factor during gastric ulcer healing. Gastric ulcers were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a luminal application of acetic acid solution. Rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day by gastric intubation for 14 successive days. The ulcer size was measured at different time intervals after ulcer induction. The microvessels that were immunohistologically positive for von Willebrand factor within the ulcer bed were counted. The protein levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and concentration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the ulcer tissues were analyzed with Western blotting and immunoassay methods, respectively. The results demonstrated that rofecoxib treatment significantly increased the ulcer size at days 6, 10, and 15. It decreased the number of microvessels, bFGF protein expression, and PGE(2) level in the ulcer base at day 6. The findings that highly selective COX-2 inhibitor delayed ulcer healing in rats and impaired angiogenesis in the ulcer base raise cautions regarding the use of COX-2 inhibitors in patients with gastric ulcers.
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ABSTRACT: Cochinchina momordica seed is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis, a perennial vine. The antiulcer effect of an extract from cochinchina momordica seeds (SK-MS10) was evaluated in a rat model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Gastric ulcers were produced by subserosal injection of acetic acid. SK-MS10 (200 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally once per day for 14 days after the acetic acid injection. The stomach was removed and the ulcer size measured at day 7 and 14 of the treatment. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, the microvasculature density (MVD) adjacent to the ulcer margin was examined by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with SK-MS10 for 7 and 14 days significantly accelerated ulcer healing and increased the expression of mRNA (at day 7) as well as VEGF protein (at day 14) compared to the vehicle-treated rats. The MVD for factor VIII was also higher in the SK-MS10 treatment group compared to the vehicle-treated rats; however, these differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that SK-MS10 treatment accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via upregulation of VEGF and angiogenesis in an acetic acid rat model.Journal of Korean medical science 06/2010; 25(6):875-81. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is reported to suppress growth and induce apoptosis in human esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) cells, although the precise biologic mechanism is unclear. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the antitumor activity of COX-2 inhibitors may involve modulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), which is overexpressed in EADC. We evaluated the effects of NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on FGF-2 expression and proliferation of EADC cell lines that express COX-2 and those that do not. We also correlated COX-2 and FGF-2 expression with clinico-pathologic findings and outcome in a well-characterized series of surgically resected EADC tissues. Seg-1 cells robustly expressed COX-2 and FGF-2, whereas Bic-1 cells expressed neither transcript. FGF-2 was reduced to undetectable levels in Seg-1 cells following NS-398 treatment, but increased within 4 h of drug removal. NS-398 significantly inhibited the growth of Seg-1 cells, and this effect was ameliorated by addition of exogenous FGF-2. In contrast, NS-398 had no effect on Bic-1 cell proliferation and FGF-2 alone had no effect on proliferation of either cell line. NS-398, or a neutralizing anti-FGF-2 antibody, induced apoptosis in Seg-1 cells, and these effects were inhibited by addition of exogenous FGF-2. COX-2 protein was strongly expressed in 46% (10/22) of EADCs, and was associated with a trend towards reduced disease-free survival. These findings indicate that the antitumor effects of COX-2 inhibition in EADC cells may be mediated via suppression of FGF-2, and that COX-2 may be a clinically relevant molecular marker in the management of human EADC.Molecular Carcinogenesis 01/2008; 46(12):971-80. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme that is actively involved in inflammation and wound healing, has been found in cirrhotic livers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inhibition of COX-2 on the development of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in rats. Liver cirrhosis was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rofecoxib, a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, was orally administered to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. Portal pressure was measured at 8 weeks post CCl(4) administration with the catheterization method followed by the harvesting of liver samples. Liver histopathology was analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. The activated, alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) positive hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the protein levels of collagen types I, III, IV, as well as laminin and two fibrogenic mediators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the livers, were detected with immunohistochemical staining and western blot methods, respectively. The level of hepatic thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)), a potent vasoconstrictive substance derived from COX, was measured with enzyme immunoassay. Oral administration of rofecoxib decreased portal pressure in rats that were treated with CCl(4) for 8 weeks. This was associated with a marked reduction in collagen accumulation and TXB(2) level in the rat livers. In addition, rofecoxib administration was found to reduce the number of activated HSCs and to downregulate hepatic protein levels of three detected types of collagen, laminin, VEGF and CTGF in CCl(4)-treated rats. COX-2 is involved in the fibrogenesis of livers and the formation of portal hypertension in CCl(4)-treated rats. Selective inhibition of COX-2 by rofecoxib reduces portal hypertension and this is associated with antifibrotic activity as well as a reduction of COX-2-derived vasoactive substance.Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 07/2007; 22(6):877-84. · 3.33 Impact Factor