Antiangiogenic effect of a highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on gastric ulcer healing in rats
ABSTRACT Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been shown to produce fewer gastrointestinal adverse reactions when compared with conventional nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and they suppress angiogenesis in tumors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of highly selective COX-2 inhibitor on angiogenesis and protein expression of angiogenic factor during gastric ulcer healing. Gastric ulcers were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a luminal application of acetic acid solution. Rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day by gastric intubation for 14 successive days. The ulcer size was measured at different time intervals after ulcer induction. The microvessels that were immunohistologically positive for von Willebrand factor within the ulcer bed were counted. The protein levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and concentration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the ulcer tissues were analyzed with Western blotting and immunoassay methods, respectively. The results demonstrated that rofecoxib treatment significantly increased the ulcer size at days 6, 10, and 15. It decreased the number of microvessels, bFGF protein expression, and PGE(2) level in the ulcer base at day 6. The findings that highly selective COX-2 inhibitor delayed ulcer healing in rats and impaired angiogenesis in the ulcer base raise cautions regarding the use of COX-2 inhibitors in patients with gastric ulcers.
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- "Since growthpromoting actions and angiogenesis are not only essential for tumor growth but also play a pivotal role in wound healing, selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may suppress these activities in gastric ulcer tissues and delay the healing process. Exogenous growth factors could enhance the healing of acetic-acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats and of NSAID-related ulcers in patients (Pohle et al., 1999; Konturek et al., 2001; Guo et al., 2002). However, limited information is available regarding whether NSAIDs, especially the cyclooxygenase-2 selective category, have any effect on the expression of growth factors and associated processes. "
ABSTRACT: To elucidate the role of cyclooxygenase-2, we compared the effects of rofecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, and ibuprofen, a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, on the evolution of acetic-acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats, evaluating growth factor expression, the angiogenic process, cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. Levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiogenesis and cell proliferation were analysed by immunohistochemical methods, and apoptosis was evaluated by an enzyme immunoassay. Both growth factors and microvessels appeared to be abundant in the granulation tissue of the ulcer bed. Rofecoxib (2.5 mg/kg/day) and ibuprofen (100 mg/kg/day) delayed ulcer healing, but only rofecoxib treatment provoked a reduction of bFGF expression and inhibition of the development of new microvessels. No changes in VEGF expression were detected. Results also showed that proliferation and apoptosis were increased in control ulcerated animals. Rofecoxib reduced significantly both processes. These findings demonstrate that a reduction of bFGF expression and an antiangiogenic action, as well as proliferation/apoptosis inhibition, are some of the mechanisms possibly implicated in the delay in ulcer healing seen after the administration of the highly selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib.European Journal of Pharmacology 12/2004; 505(1-3):187-94. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.10.019 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is a mediator of angiogenesis, and COX-2 activity is known to be upregulated in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium. We examined whether mediation of angiogenesis by COX-2 was occuring in cells of the RA synovium and in microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) that are similar to those found in the RA synovium. We demonstrate that rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, acts directly on human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVECs) to inhibit their chemotactic and tube forming ability. Likewise, pretreatment of HMVECs with rofecoxib significantly inhibited their ability to form tubes induced by conditioned media (CM) of activated RA synovial fibroblasts. When RA synovial fibroblasts were pretreated with rofecoxib for 16 h and then stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β, their CM induced significantly less HMVEC tube formation when compared with CM from vehicle-treated RA synovial fibroblasts. ELISAs performed on activated RA fibroblast CM for known proangiogenic factors demonstrated a significant reduction in bFGF, in addition to the expected decrease in PGE2. Our studies suggest that COX-2-induced angiogenic activity is an active mechanism within diseased synovium and may provide an additional rationale for the use of COX-2 inhibitors in RA.Experimental and Molecular Pathology 06/2003; 74(3):282-290. DOI:10.1016/S0014-4800(03)00019-4 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since Takagi et al. reported an experimental chronic gastric ulcer model [acetic acid ulcers induced by submucosal injection of acetic acid (Type 1)], we further modified the methodology and subsequently devised three more models. The second model involves inducing ulcers by serosal application of an acetic acid solution (Type 2) and the third model achieves ulcer induction by intragastric application of an acetic acid solution (Type 3). The forth model was modification of the third model by giving the acetic acid solution and the same volume of air to make one ulcer in the stomach (Type 4). In general, animals accepted the procedures without problems and no undesirable effects were noticed. More importantly, this experimental animal model allows production of ulcers that highly resemble human ulcers in terms of both pathology and healing. Indeed, relapse is even endoscopically observed for 360 days after ulceration. The ulcers produced not only respond well to various anti-ulcer medications, such as antisecretory and mucosal protective drugs and growth factors, but also demonstrate appropriate responses to ulcerogenic agents such as NSAIDs. In addition, we have recently demonstrated that H. pylori infection resulted in delayed ulcer healing and recurrence of healed acetic acid ulcers induced in Mongolian gerbils. The present article gives a brief summary of the ulcer history before establishment of acetic acid ulcers and characteristic features of acetic acid ulcer, including both their merits and shortcomings.Folia Pharmacologica Japonica 08/2003; 122(1):73-92. DOI:10.1254/fpj.122.73