Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been shown to produce fewer gastrointestinal adverse reactions when compared with conventional nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and they suppress angiogenesis in tumors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of highly selective COX-2 inhibitor on angiogenesis and protein expression of angiogenic factor during gastric ulcer healing. Gastric ulcers were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a luminal application of acetic acid solution. Rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day by gastric intubation for 14 successive days. The ulcer size was measured at different time intervals after ulcer induction. The microvessels that were immunohistologically positive for von Willebrand factor within the ulcer bed were counted. The protein levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and concentration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the ulcer tissues were analyzed with Western blotting and immunoassay methods, respectively. The results demonstrated that rofecoxib treatment significantly increased the ulcer size at days 6, 10, and 15. It decreased the number of microvessels, bFGF protein expression, and PGE(2) level in the ulcer base at day 6. The findings that highly selective COX-2 inhibitor delayed ulcer healing in rats and impaired angiogenesis in the ulcer base raise cautions regarding the use of COX-2 inhibitors in patients with gastric ulcers.
"Since growthpromoting actions and angiogenesis are not only essential for tumor growth but also play a pivotal role in wound healing, selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may suppress these activities in gastric ulcer tissues and delay the healing process. Exogenous growth factors could enhance the healing of acetic-acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats and of NSAID-related ulcers in patients (Pohle et al., 1999; Konturek et al., 2001; Guo et al., 2002). However, limited information is available regarding whether NSAIDs, especially the cyclooxygenase-2 selective category, have any effect on the expression of growth factors and associated processes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the role of cyclooxygenase-2, we compared the effects of rofecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, and ibuprofen, a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, on the evolution of acetic-acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats, evaluating growth factor expression, the angiogenic process, cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. Levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiogenesis and cell proliferation were analysed by immunohistochemical methods, and apoptosis was evaluated by an enzyme immunoassay. Both growth factors and microvessels appeared to be abundant in the granulation tissue of the ulcer bed. Rofecoxib (2.5 mg/kg/day) and ibuprofen (100 mg/kg/day) delayed ulcer healing, but only rofecoxib treatment provoked a reduction of bFGF expression and inhibition of the development of new microvessels. No changes in VEGF expression were detected. Results also showed that proliferation and apoptosis were increased in control ulcerated animals. Rofecoxib reduced significantly both processes. These findings demonstrate that a reduction of bFGF expression and an antiangiogenic action, as well as proliferation/apoptosis inhibition, are some of the mechanisms possibly implicated in the delay in ulcer healing seen after the administration of the highly selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib.
European Journal of Pharmacology 12/2004; 505(1-3):187-94. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.10.019 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is a mediator of angiogenesis, and COX-2 activity is known to be upregulated in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium. We examined whether mediation of angiogenesis by COX-2 was occuring in cells of the RA synovium and in microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) that are similar to those found in the RA synovium. We demonstrate that rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, acts directly on human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVECs) to inhibit their chemotactic and tube forming ability. Likewise, pretreatment of HMVECs with rofecoxib significantly inhibited their ability to form tubes induced by conditioned media (CM) of activated RA synovial fibroblasts. When RA synovial fibroblasts were pretreated with rofecoxib for 16 h and then stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β, their CM induced significantly less HMVEC tube formation when compared with CM from vehicle-treated RA synovial fibroblasts. ELISAs performed on activated RA fibroblast CM for known proangiogenic factors demonstrated a significant reduction in bFGF, in addition to the expected decrease in PGE2. Our studies suggest that COX-2-induced angiogenic activity is an active mechanism within diseased synovium and may provide an additional rationale for the use of COX-2 inhibitors in RA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rofecoxib (MK-966) is a new generation non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that exhibits promising anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. It selectively inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 isoenzyme in a dose-dependent manner in man. No significant inhibition of COX-1 is observed with rofecoxib up to doses of 1000 mg. The pharmacokinetics of rofecoxib has been found to be complex and variable. Mean oral bioavailability after single dose of rofecoxib (12.5, 25 or 50 mg) is 93% with t(max) varying widely between 2 and 9 h. It is highly plasma-protein bound and is metabolized primarily by cytosolic reductases to inactive metabolites. Rofecoxib is eliminated predominantly by hepatic metabolism with a terminal half-life of approximately 17 h during steady state. Various experimental models and clinical studies have demonstrated rofecoxib to be superior, or at least equivalent, in anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic efficacy to comparator nonselective NSAIDs in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other pain models. Emerging evidence suggests that rofecoxib may also find potential use as supportive therapy in various pathophysiologic conditions like Alzheimer's disease, and in various malignant tumours and polyps, where COX-2 is overly expressed. Rofecoxib is generally well-tolerated. Analysis of data pooled from several trials suggests that rofecoxib is associated with fewer incidences of clinically symptomatic gastrointestinal ulcers and ulcer complications vis-à-vis conventional NSAIDs. However, this gastropreserving effect may be negated by concurrent use of low-dose aspirin for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rofecoxib tends to show similar tolerability for renal and cardiothrombotic events as compared with nonnaproxen nonselective NSAIDs. No clinically significant drug interaction has been reported for rofecoxib except with diuretics, where it reverses their salt-wasting effect and thus can be clinically exploited in electrolyte-wasting disorders. There is only modest information about the physicochemical and pharmaceutical aspects of rofecoxib. Being poorly water soluble, its drug delivery has been improved using varied formulation approaches. Although it is stable in solid state, rofecoxib is photosensitive and base-sensitive in solution form with its degradation mechanistics elucidated. Analytical determinations of rofecoxib and its metabolites in biological fluids employing HPLC with varied types of detectors have been reported. Isolated studies have also been published on the chromatographic and spectrophotometric assay of rofecoxib and its degradants in bulk samples and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The current article provides an updated overview on the physicochemical, pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic vistas of rofecoxib.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 08/2003; 55(7):859-94. DOI:10.1211/0022357021387 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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