Thermosetting gels with modulated gelation temperature for ophthalmic use: the rheological and gamma scintigraphic studies.
ABSTRACT For ophthalmic drug delivery, Pluronic F127 solutions have a phase transition temperature too low for them to be instilled into the eye at room temperature. Refrigerator storage is usually required to make administration easier, whereas the potential irritation of cold to the sensitive ocular tissues may result in poor topical bioavailability. The purpose of this study is to develop a thermosetting gel with a suitable phase transition temperature by combining Pluronic analogs and to examine the influence of incorporating mucoadhesive polysaccharide, sodium hyaluronate (HA-Na), on the ocular retention of the gel. Dynamic rheological method and single photon emission computing tomography (SPECT) technique were used to ex/in vivo evaluate the thermosetting gels, respectively. An optimized formulation containing 21% F127 and 10% F68 increased the phase transition temperature by 9 degrees C as evaluated by elasticity modulus compared to that of individual 21% F127 solution. Rheological behaviors of the Pluronic solutions showed that the combined Pluronic formulation was free flowing liquid below 25 degrees C and converted to a firm gel under the physiological condition. Furthermore, this formulation possessed the highest viscosity both before and after tear dilution at 35 degrees C. Gamma scintigraphic data demonstrated that the clearance of the thermosetting gel labeled with 99mTc-DTPA was significantly delayed with respect to the phosphate buffered solution, and at least a threefold increase of the corneal residence time was achieved. However, no further improvement in the ocular retention was observed when adding HA-Na into the thermosetting gel due to the substantially decreased gel strength.
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ABSTRACT: Self-assembling block copolymers (poloxamers, PEG/PLA and PEG/PLGA diblock and triblock copolymers, PEG/polycaprolactone, polyether modified poly(Acrylic Acid)) with large solubility difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties have the property of forming temperature dependent micellar aggregates and, after a further temperature increase, of gellifying due to micelle aggregation or packing. This property enables drugs to be mixed in the sol state at room temperature then the solution can be injected into a target tissue, forming a gel depot in-situ at body temperature with the goal of providing drug release control. The presence of micellar structures that give rise to thermoreversible gels, characterized by low toxicity and mucomimetic properties, makes this delivery system capable of solubilizing water-insoluble or poorly soluble drugs and of protecting labile molecules such as proteins and peptide drugs.Polymers. 01/2011; 3:779-811.
Article: Part II: Enhancement of transcorneal delivery of gatifloxacin by solid lipid nanoparticles in comparison to commercial aqueous eye drops.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study describes corneal permeation of gatifloxacin from solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) through the cornea and its effect on corneal hydration level. The aqueous humor levels of gatifloxacin after single topical instillation in Gate(®) Eyedrops and positively charged SLN-C were determined. A 3.37-fold increase in the relative bioavailability was observed with the SLN-C (AUC(0→∞) 2.192 μg mL(-1) h) (AUC, area under the curve) as compared to Gate(®) Eyedrops (AUC(0→∞) 0.651 μg mL(-1) h). The t(1/2) of drug in SLN-C exhibited a 2.34-fold higher than Gate(®) Eyedrops seem to be significantly increased (p > 0.05), C(max) of gatifloxacin from SLN-C showed 1.09-fold higher concentration as compared to Gate(®) Eyedrops. The results suggested that SLNs could enhance ocular bioavailability of gatifloxacin and prolong its residence time in the eyes. Moreover, no signs of ocular irritation were seen with the SLN formulations, indicating their relative safety compared to the marketed drops. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 11/2012; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mucoadhesion is a field of current interest in the design of drug delivery systems. Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system may be designed to enable prolonged residence time of the dosage form at the site of application or absorption and facilitate an intimate contact of the dosage form with the underline absorption surface. Extending the residence time of a dosage form at a particular site and controlling the release of drug from the dosage form are useful especially for achieving controlled plasma level of the drug as well as improving bioavailability. Application of these dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The present review describes mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive polymers and use of these polymers in designing different types of mucoadhesive gastrointestinal, nasal, ocular, vaginal and rectal drug delivery systems. The research on mucoadhesives, however, is still in its early stage, and further advances need to be made for the successful translation of the concept into practical application in controlled drug delivery.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (IJPSR). 07/2012; 3(8):2455-2471.