R UBISCO : Structure, Regulatory Interactions, and Possibilities for a Better Enzyme

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0664, USA.
Annual review of plant biology (Impact Factor: 23.3). 02/2002; 53(1):449-75. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.53.100301.135233
Source: PubMed


Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the first step in net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and photorespiratory carbon oxidation. The enzyme is notoriously inefficient as a catalyst for the carboxylation of RuBP and is subject to competitive inhibition by O2, inactivation by loss of carbamylation, and dead-end inhibition by RuBP. These inadequacies make Rubisco rate limiting for photosynthesis and an obvious target for increasing agricultural productivity. Resolution of X-ray crystal structures and detailed analysis of divergent, mutant, and hybrid enzymes have increased our insight into the structure/function relationships of Rubisco. The interactions and associations relatively far from the Rubisco active site, including regulatory interactions with Rubisco activase, may present new approaches and strategies for understanding and ultimately improving this complex enzyme.

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Available from: Michael E Salvucci, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "On the other hand, a drop in Rubisco activity was observed in waterlogged barley plants as a result of restricted synthesis of both Rubisco subunits (Yordanova and Popova, 2001; Yordanova et al., 2004). The catalytic competence of Rubisco is attained following its activation by Rubisco activase in an ATP-dependent reaction (Spreitzer and Salvucci, 2002; Portis 2003). Two isoforms of Rubisco activase were evidenced in Festuca pratensis as a result of alternative splicing of a single gene (Jurczyk et al., 2015b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Increased precipitation expected during autumn and winter at higher latitudes in the northern hemisphere may lead to low temperature short-term waterlogging. The temperature of waterlogging was shown to be an important factor controlling plant reaction to this stress. Photosynthetic apparatus response to water excess in the soil at low temperature was examined in Festuca pratensis genotypes with contrasting freezing tolerance. The study was aimed to test the hypothesis whether changes in leaf water- soluble carbohydrate concentration brought about alterations in Rubisco activity may affect the photoacclimation to cold under water excess in the soil. The study investigated the effects of waterlogging during cold acclimation process on a set of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, water-soluble carbohydrates, expression of Rubisco activase gene, and Rubisco activity. It was shown that carbohydrate status affected by Rubisco activity might be crucial for the activation of non-photochemical mechanism of photoacclimation to cold under waterlogging. Altered Rubisco activity was only partially attributed to the expression of Rubisco activase gene. Additionally, low carbohydrate concentration in the leaves of waterlogged plants was the condition preventing sugar repression of photosynthesis, including RcaA expression. This indicates that sugar de-repression of photosynthetic genes may be considered a component of photosynthetic acclimation to cold under waterlogging.
    Environmental and Experimental Botany 09/2015; 122:60-67. DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2015.09.003 · 3.36 Impact Factor
    • "Plasmids p35S-RbcS-GFP and p35S-RbcS-FLAG were constructed and subsequently used to co-transform rice leaf sheath protoplasts. A RuBisCO complex contains 8 RbcS in vivo (Spreitzer and Salvucci 2002), thus the RbcS-GFP and RbcS-FLAG could interacts in a cotransformed protoplast. The extracts of co-transformed protoplasts , p35S-RbcS-FLAG-transformed protoplasts and untransformed protoplasts were subjected to co-IP assay using anti-GFP antibody, western blot analysis was then performed using anti-FLAG antibody. "
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    ABSTRACT: An efficient and reproducible protocol for induction of adventitious shoot buds and plant regeneration from petiole explant cultures of Jatropha curcas, an important biofuel crop, is described. Physiologically mature trees of three J. curcas genotypes were selected and explants were prepared from young petioles. Treating the explants with high concentrations (5 to 120 mg/L) of thidiazuron (TDZ) solution for short time periods (5 to 80 min) helped increase the regeneration frequency and improved the quality of the regenerated buds significantly. The age of the petioles and inoculation methods were found to influence the culture results. The best shoot buds induction (65.78%) and number of buds (6.77) per explant was seen in the second petiole explants of genotype M-1 treated with 20 mg/L TDZ solution for 20 min, followed by 35-day culture on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium. The regenerated buds could elongate to become shoots in a medium containing gibberellic acid. The elongated shoots initiated roots to become intact plantlets in rooting medium containing indole-3-butyric acid and L-glutamine (Gln), and supplementing 16 mg/L Gln into the rooting medium effectively stimulated the initiation and growth of roots, with the best rooting rate (51.72%). After acclimatization, these plantlets were transplanted to soil wherein normal growth was observed. Therefore, an intact plantlet could usually be obtained at 60 days of culture by using the culture protocol described in this study. This protocol can be used for mass production of true-to-type plants and the production of transgenic plants through Agrobacterium/biolistic-mediated transformation.
    Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 05/2015; 29(3):479-488. DOI:10.1080/13102818.2015.1013308 · 0.30 Impact Factor
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    • "gene product (573, 595, 599), mitochondrial ATPase (648, 673) and V/A-type ATP synthase (spot 871, 419), which have a central role in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, significantly decreased under 5 days Cd stress (Table 2 and Fig. 7). As one of the most important enzymes involved in the energy metabolism of all photosynthetic organisms, RuBisCO catalyzes the first step in net photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation and photorespiratory carbon oxidation (Spreitzer and Salvucci, 2002). Previous studies have shown that the amount of RuBisCO large and small subunits was drastically reduced and became fragmented under 250 ␮M Cd treatment of rice leaves (Hajduch et al., 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 03/2015; 163. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.03.018 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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