Cytogenetic features of multiple myeloma: impact of gender, age, disease phase, culture time, and cytokine stimulation.
ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the cytogenetic features of multiple myeloma (MM) when compared to other hematologic malignancies. The reasons for this are most likely manifold, and include a low mitotic index of the malignant cells and the presence of cytogenetically cryptic abnormalities as well as of complex karyotypes with poor chromosome morphology. In the present study, we have investigated whether various culture conditions may influence the yield of abnormal metaphases in MM and, in the related plasma cell dyscrasias, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and plasmacytomas (PC). In addition, the possible impact of age, gender, and disease phase on the cytogenetic features has been analyzed. A total of 95 samples from 74 cases (68 MM, three PC, and three MGUS patients) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis. The samples were cultured either in conventional medium or in medium containing IL-6 and GM-CSF, and the culture times varied from 24 to 120 h. In total, 186 cultures were analyzed. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using probes specific for 14q32, i.e. IGH rearrangements, could be performed in 57 of the 74 cases, and revealed 14q32 aberrations in 10 cases not seen by conventional G-banding. Abnormal karyotypes were detected in 77 (41%) of the 186 cultures, 46 (48%) of the 95 samples, and in 41 (55%) of the 74 patients, revealing a total of 20 chromosomal aberrations previously not reported in plasma cell dyscrasias. We found no evidence that gender, age, disease phase, culture time, or cytokine stimulation significantly influences the karyotypic features of MM.
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ABSTRACT: Several trials have shown the superior impact of high-dose melphalan (usually 200 mg/m(2), MEL200) vs standard therapy in myeloma patients. Intermediate-dose melphalan (100 mg/m(2), MEL100) is also superior to the standard dose, but has not been clinically compared with MEL200. A total of 90 patients at diagnosis were treated with two MEL100 courses. Their clinical outcome was compared with that of a control group of 90 pair mates matched for serum beta2-microglobulin levels and Durie and Salmon clinical stage. These patients were treated at diagnosis with two MEL200 courses. Patient characteristics were similar in both groups except that the median age of the MEL100 group was significantly higher (P<0.0001). Complete remission was 35% after MEL100 and 48% after MEL200 (P=0.08). Median event-free survival (EFS) was 32 months in the MEL100 group and 42 months in the MEL200 group (P<0.005), but overall survival (OS) was not different. Transplant-related mortality was not significantly different. Haematological and extra-haematological toxicity was significantly reduced after MEL100. Despite the significant age difference, tandem MEL100 was less toxic than tandem MEL200, and MEL100 was inferior to MEL200 in terms of EFS but not in terms of OS. The intensified nonmyeloablative MEL100 regimen is an effective first-line treatment.Leukemia 01/2004; 18(1):133-8. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cytogenetic features (ploidy, complexity, breakpoints, imbalances) were ascertained in 783 abnormal multiple myeloma (MM) cases to identify frequently involved chromosomal regions as well as a possible impact of age/sex. The series included MM patients from the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer and from our own laboratory. Hyperdiploidy was most common, followed by hypodiploidy, pseudodiploidy and tri-/tetraploidy. Most cases were complex, with a median of eight changes per patient. The distribution of modal numbers differed between younger and older patients, but was not related to sex. No sex- or age-related differences regarding the number of anomalies were found. The most frequent genomic breakpoints were 14q32, 11q13, 1q10, 8q24, 1p11, 1q21, 22q11, 1p13, 1q11, 19q13, 1p22, 6q21 and 17p11. Breaks in 1p13, 6q21 and 11q13 were more common in the younger age group. The most frequent imbalances were + 9, - 13, + 15, + 19, + 11 and - Y. Trisomy 11 and monosomy 16 were more common among men, while -X was more frequent among women. Loss of Y as the sole change and + 5 were more common in elderly patients, and - 14 was more frequent in the younger age group. The present findings strongly suggest that some karyotypic features of MM are influenced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors.British Journal of Haematology 04/2003; 120(6):960-9. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of age on outcome and to analyze the projected years of life lost in patients with multiple myeloma. Ten thousand five hundred forty-nine patients were evaluated; 6,996 patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy, and 3,553 patients were treated with high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation. Mean observed and relative overall survival times in the entire cohort were 3.7 and 3.9 years, respectively. Observed survival decreased steadily from 6.4 years in patients younger than age 50 years to 2.5 years in patients > or = age 80 years. A similar decrease was noted for relative survival. Higher age correlated significantly with higher International Staging System (ISS) stage. Relative excess risk of death differed significantly between 10-year age cohorts beginning from age 40 years (P < .001 for age 50 to 59 v age 40 to 49, P < .001 for age 60 to 69 v age 50 to 59, P < .001 for age 70 to 79 v age 60 to 69, and P = .009 for age > or = 80 v 70 to 79). The average years of life lost per patient was 16.8 years in the entire patient cohort and decreased steadily from 36.1 years in patients younger than 40 years old to 4.6 years in patients > or = age 80 years. Age is associated with higher ISS stage and is an important risk factor for early mortality. Survival declined continuously by each decade from age 50 to age > or = 80 from more than 6 to less than 3 years. The average of years of life lost in patients with myeloma is higher than in many other cancers and amounts to more than 30 years in patients younger than 40 years old but decreases to less than 5 years in patients age 80 years or older.Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2010; 28(9):1599-605. · 18.04 Impact Factor