Left atrial maximum volume is a recurrence predictor in lone atrial fibrillation: an acoustic quantification study.
ABSTRACT Predictors of recurrence in lone atrial fibrillation have not been clearly identified. Acoustic quantification (AQ) is a promising method in the assessment of left atrial (LA) volumes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential of LA volumes obtained by standard manual tracing and AQ methods in predicting AF-recurrence after restoring the sinus rhythm in patients with lone AF, and to test the agreement between the two approaches. Standard echocardiography combined with AQ was performed in 28 patients with lone AF one hour after the sinus rhythm was regained, and in 10 controls. LA volumes were determined by conventional manual tracing and AQ methods. AQ waveforms of LA were obtained by drawing a region of interest around the LA border. The agreement of the two methods was tested by Bland-Altman analysis. Patients were followed up for 6 months for the occurrence of AF recurrence. A good correlation was observed between AQ and manual tracing methods in determining both minimal (r=0.59) and maximal (r=0.88) LA volumes. Patients with AF recurrence had a significantly larger maximum LA volume as assessed with both methods (P<0.05 for both). M-mode derived LA dimension and isovolumic relaxation time were additional predictors of recurrence in patients with lone AF. In lone AF, patients prone to recurrence could be predicted by determining LA maximum volume assessed either by AQ or manual tracing methods. AQ provides on-line, accurate estimation of LA volumes.
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ABSTRACT: This review is a summary of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the progress in the understanding of this arrhythmia. The following factors should be considered in the genesis and maintenance of AF. The genetic factor is involved in cases of familial AF. Predisposing structural factors: atrial dilation, structural feature that allows the development of AF. Predisposing structural factors: the role of the Bachmann s bundle and frequency gradients between the left and right atrium. Electrophysiological factors: heterogeneous refractory periods favor the fibrillatory conduction. Triggers: abnormal electrical activity (ectopic foci). Modulating factors: autonomic nervous system. Increased vagal tone shortens atrial refractory periods, creating a greater dispersion of the refractory periods and the generation of reentries in the context of triggered activity. Finally, there are three types of atrial remodeling secondary to AF: structural, contractile, electrical. They are interrelated and contribute to maintaining the AF ("AF begets AF").Archivos de cardiología de México 12/2009; 79:18-25.
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ABSTRACT: The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the previously published guidelines for cardiac chamber quantification, which was the goal of the joint writing group assembled by the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. This document provides updated normal values for all four cardiac chambers, including three-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation, when possible, on the basis of considerably larger numbers of normal subjects, compiled from multiple databases. In addition, this document attempts to eliminate several minor discrepancies that existed between previously published guidelines. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 01/2015; 28(1):1-39.e14. · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction may derive benefit from being in sinus rhythm but no data are available to support this strategy in them. We sought to investigate effect of left ventricular remodeling on cardiovascular outcomes in AF patients undergoing rhythm control strategy. Methods We identified 1088 patients with echocardiographic data on left ventricular mass (LVM) enrolled in the AFFIRM trial. Using the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) criteria, patients were divided into 4 categories: 1) normal geometry, 2) concentric remodeling, 3) eccentric hypertrophy, and 4) concentric hypertrophy. The primary endpoint was AF recurrence and the secondary endpoint was cardiovascular hospitalization (CVH). Results In rhythm control arm, median time to recurrence in patients with concentric LVH was 13.3 months (95% CI 8.2–24.5) vs. 28.3 months (95% CI 20.2–48.6) in patients without LVH. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was independently predictive of AF recurrence (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10–2.01, p = 0.01) in rhythm control arm, but not in overall population or rate control arm. Both concentric and eccentric LVH were independently predictive of cardiovascular hospitalization (CVH) in the overall population, with respective HRs of 1.36 (1.04–1.78, p = 0.03) and 1.38 (1.02–1.85, p = 0.04). Conclusion Concentric LVH is predictive of AF recurrences when a predominantly pharmacologic rhythm-control strategy is employed. Different patterns of LVH seem to be important determinants of outcomes (AF recurrence and CVH). These findings may have important clinical implications for the management of patients with AF and LVH. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.International Journal of Cardiology. 06/2014; 174(2):288–292.