Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of atovaquone/proguanil for the prevention of Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria among migrants to Papua, Indonesia.
ABSTRACT The increasing prevalence of resistance to antimalarial drugs reduces options for malaria prophylaxis. Atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone; GlaxoSmithKline) has been >95% effective in preventing Plasmodium falciparum malaria in lifelong residents of areas of holoendemicity, but data from persons without clinical immunity or who are at risk for Plasmodium vivax malaria have not been described. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded study involving 297 people from areas of nonendemicity in Indonesia who migrated to Papua (where malaria is endemic) < or =26 months before the study period. Subjects received prophylaxis with 1 Malarone tablet (250 mg of atovaquone and 100 mg of proguanil hydrochloride; n=148) or placebo (n=149) per day for 20 weeks. Hematologic and clinical chemistry values did not change significantly. The protective efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44%-95%) for P. vivax malaria, 96% (95% CI, 72%-99%) for P. falciparum malaria, and 93% (95% CI, 77%-98%) overall. Atovaquone/proguanil was well tolerated, safe, and effective for the prevention of drug-resistant P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria in individuals without prior malaria exposure who migrated to Papua, Indonesia.
- SourceAvailable from: InTech03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0274-8
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ABSTRACT: Malaria is one of the most common and serious infectious diseases in the tropics and subtropics. For high-risk travelers to endemic regions, malaria chemoprophylaxis is recommended. Internationally, atovaquone-proguanil (A/P), mefloquine (MEF), or doxycycline (DOX) are the prescribed malaria chemoprophylactic drugs. However, A/P and DOX are not approved in Japan. Therefore, the data on A/P for malaria chemoprophylaxis in Japanese travelers are not clear. We analyzed questionnaire survey data obtained in Hibiya Clinic to assess the safety and tolerability of A/P and compare them with those of MEF for non-immune Japanese travelers. A/P was given to 278 travelers and MEF to 38 travelers. The mean duration of each prophylaxis is for 20.0 ± 9.6 and 59.0 ± 15.9 days, respectively. Nine travelers discontinued prophylaxis: 5 in the A/P prescribed group (A/P group) and 4 in the MEF prescribed group (MEF group), and the rate of discontinuation was significantly less in the A/P group. The frequency of adverse events was significantly less in the A/P group than in the MEF group [52 cases (18.8 %) vs. 14 cases (36.8 %), respectively]. In particular, the frequency of psychoneurotic adverse events was significantly less in the A/P group. These results suggest that A/P is better tolerated and has fewer adverse events than MEF in non-immune Japanese travelers.Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 06/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
Article: Prophylaxis of malaria.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Malaria prevention in travelers to endemic areas remains dependent principally on chemoprophylaxis. Although malaria chemoprophylaxis refers to all malaria species, a distinction should be drawn between falciparum malaria prophylaxis and the prophylaxis of the relapsing malaria species (vivax & ovale). While the emergence of drug resistant strains, as well as the costs and adverse reactions to medications, complicate falciparum prophylaxis use, there are virtually no drugs available for vivax prophylaxis, beside of primaquine.Based on traveler's malaria data, a revised recommendation for using chemoprophylaxis in low risk areas should be considered.Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 01/2012; 4(1):e2012045.