Kinetics of violaxanthin de-epoxidation by violaxanthin de-epoxidase, a xanthophyll cycle enzyme, is regulated by membrane fluidity in model lipid bilayers.
ABSTRACT This paper describes violaxanthin de-epoxidation in model lipid bilayers. Unilamellar egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) vesicles supplemented with monogalactosyldiacylglycerol were found to be a suitable system for studying this reaction. Such a system resembles more the native thylakoid membrane and offers better possibilities for studying kinetics and factors controlling de-epoxidation of violaxanthin than a system composed only ofmonogalactosyldiacylglycerol and is commonly used in xanthophyll cycle studies. The activity of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) strongly depended on the ratio of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol to PtdCho in liposomes. The mathematical model of violaxanthin de-epoxidation was applied to calculate the probability of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin conversion at different phases of de-epoxidation reactions. Measurements of deepoxidation rate and EPR-spin label study at different temperatures revealed that dynamic properties of the membrane are important factors that might control conversion of violaxanthin to antheraxanthin. A model of the molecular mechanism of violaxanthin de-epoxidation where the reversed hexagonal structures (mainly created by monogalactosyldiacylglycerol) are assumed to be required for violaxanthin conversion to zeaxanthin is proposed. The presence of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol reversed hexagonal phase was detected in the PtdCho/monogalactosyldiacylglycerol liposomes membrane by 31P-NMR studies. The availability of violaxanthin for de-epoxidation is a diffusion-dependent process controlled by membrane fluidity. The significance of the presented results for understanding themechanism of violaxanthin de-epoxidation in native thylakoid membranes is discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Moderately high temperature reduces photosynthetic capacities of leaves with large effects on thylakoid reactions of photosynthesis, including xanthophyll conversion in the lipid phase of the thylakoid membrane. In previous studies, we have found that leaf temperature of 40°C increased zeaxanthin accumulation in dark-adapted, intact tobacco leaves following a brief illumination, but did not change the amount of zeaxanthin in light-adatped leaves. To investigate heat effects on zeaxanthin accumulation and decay, zeaxanthin level was monitored optically in dark-adapted, intact tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana leaves at either 23 or 40°C under 45-min illumination. Heated leaves had more zeaxanthin following 3-min light but had less or comparable amounts of zeaxanthin by the end of 45 min of illumination. Zeaxanthin accumulated faster at light initiation and decayed faster upon darkening in leaves at 40°C than leaves at 23°C, indicating that heat increased the activities of both violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZE). In addition, our optical measurement demonstrated in vivo that weak light enhances zeaxanthin decay relative to darkness in intact leaves of tobacco and Arabidopsis, confirming previous observations in isolated spinach chloroplasts. However, the maximum rate of decay is similar for weak light and darkness, and we used the maximum rate of decay following darkness as a measure of the rate of ZE during steady-state light. A simulation indicated that high temperature should cause a large shift in the pH dependence of the amount of zeaxanthin in leaves because of differential effects on VDE and ZE. This allows for the reduction in ΔpH caused by heat to be offset by increased VDE activity relative to ZE.Photosynthesis Research 07/2011; 108(2-3):171-81. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present studies was analysis of the age induced changes in photochemical efficiency and xanthophylls cycle pigments of the primary cabbage(Brassica oleracea L. cv. Capitata f. alba) leaves. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) was studied by a pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence apparatus, chlorophyll concentration was analysis spectrophotometrically and xanthophyll cycle pigments were estimated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Leaf senescence was accompanied with a decrease both in chlorophylls concentration, the photochemical efficiency and rate constant for PS II photochemistry whereas non-photochemical parameters increased. Excitation pressure (1-qP) which is a measure of relative lumen acidification increased by 1.2× in aging leaves. The maximum quantum yield of PS II showed no significant change. The level of de-epoxidised xanthophylls increased but the concentration of mono- and di-epoxy xanthophylls decreased in aging leaves. A linear relationship between the excitation pressure and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments and lutein, during the onset of senescence suggests that excitation pressure can be used as a sensor for monitoring the onset of senescence as well for the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophylls responsible for non-photochemical quenching in stressed leaves.J. Life-Sciences. 03/2011; 5(3):182-191.
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ABSTRACT: The redox state of plastoquinone-pool in chloroplasts is crucial for driving many responses to variable environment, from short-term effects to those at the gene expression level. In the present studies, we showed for the first time that the plastoquinone-pool undergoes relatively fast oxidation during high light stress of low light-grown Arabidopsis plants. This oxidation was not caused by photoinhibition of photosystem II, but mainly by singlet oxygen generated in photosystem II and non-photochemical quenching in light harvesting complex antenna of the photosystem, as revealed in experiments with a singlet oxygen scavenger and with Arabidopsis npq4 mutant. The latter mechanism suppresses the influx of electrons to the plastoquinone-pool preventing its excessive reduction. The obtained results are of crucial importance in light of the function of the redox state of the plastoquinone-pool in triggering many high light-stimulated physiological responses of plants.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2012; 1817(5):705-10. · 4.66 Impact Factor