Postischemic recovery and oxidative stress are independent of nitric-oxide synthases modulation in isolated rat heart.
ABSTRACT During myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, nitric oxide ((.)NO) was shown to exert either beneficial or detrimental effects. Uncoupled (.)NO synthases (NOS) can generate superoxide anion under suboptimal concentrations of substrate and cofactors. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of NOS modulation on 1) the evolution of functional parameters and 2) the amount of free radicals released during an ischemia-reperfusion sequence. Isolated perfused rat hearts underwent 30 min of total ischemia, followed by 30 min of reperfusion in the presence of N(G)-nitro-D- or L-arginine methyl ester (NAME, 100 microM) or of D- or L-arginine (3 mM). Functional parameters were recorded and coronary effluents were analyzed with electron spin resonance to identify and quantify the amount of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone spin adducts produced during reperfusion. The antioxidant capacities of the compounds were determined with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity test. L-NAME-treated hearts showed a reduction of coronary flow and contractile performance, although neither L-NAME nor L-arginine improved the recovery of coronary flow, left end diastolic ventricular pressure, rate pressure product, and duration of reperfusion arrhythmia, compared with their D-specific enantiomers. A large and long-lasting release of alkyl/alkoxyl radicals was detected upon reperfusion, but no differences of free radical release were observed between D- and L-NAME or D- and L-arginine treatment. These results may indicate that, in our experimental conditions, cardiac NOS might not be a major factor implicated in the oxidative burst that follows a global myocardial ischemia.
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ABSTRACT: l-Arginine (l-Arg) is a conditionally essential amino acid in the human diet. The most common dietary sources of l-Arg are meat, poultry and fish. l-Arg is the precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO); a key signaling molecule via NO synthase (NOS). Endogenous NOS inhibitors such as asymmetric-dimethyl-l-Arg inhibit NO synthesis in vivo by competing with l-Arg at the active site of NOS. In addition, NOS possesses the ability to be "uncoupled" to produce superoxide anion instead of NO. Reduced NO bioavailability may play an essential role in cardiovascular pathologies and metabolic diseases. l-Arg deficiency syndromes in humans involve endothelial inflammation and immune dysfunctions. Exogenous administration of l-Arg restores NO bioavailability, but it has not been possible to demonstrate, that l-Arg supplementation improved endothelial function in cardiovascular disease such as heart failure or hypertension. l-Arg supplementation may be a novel therapy for obesity and metabolic syndrome. The utility of l-Arg supplementation in the treatment of l-Arg deficiency syndromes remains to be established. Clinical trials need to continue to determine the optimal concentrations and combinations of l-Arg, with other protective compounds such as tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 ), and antioxidants to combat oxidative stress that drives down NO production in humans.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 06/2013; · 4.31 Impact Factor
Article: Forgotten Radicals in Biology.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Redox reactions play key roles in intra- and inter-cellular signaling, and in adaptative processes of tissues towards stress. Among the major free radicals with essential functions in cells are reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion (O2 (•-)), hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide ((•)NO). In this article, we review the forgotten and new radicals with potential relevance to cardiovascular pathophysiology. Approximately 0.3% of O2 (•-) present in cytosol exists in its protonated form: hydroperoxyl radical (HO2 (•)). Water (H2O) can be split into two free radicals: (•)OH and hydrogen radical (H(•)). Several free radicals, including thiyl radicals (RS(•)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 (•)) are known to isomerize double bonds. In the omega-6 series of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), cis-trans isomerization of γ-linolenate and arachidonate catalyzed by RS(•) has been investigated. Evidence is emerging that hydrogen disulphide (H2S) is a signaling molecule in vivo which can be a source of free radicals. The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme can oxidize the ionized form of H2S to hydro-sulphide radical: HS(•). Recent studies suggest that H2S plays an important function in cardiovascular functions. Carbonate radical, which can be formed when (•)OH reacts with carbonate or bicarbonate ions, is also involved in the activity of Cu-Zn-SOD. Recently, it has been reported that carbonate anion were potentially relevant oxidants of nucleic acids in physiological environments. In conclusion, there is solid evidence supporting the formation of many free radicals by cells leading which may play an important role in their homeostasis.International journal of biomedical science : IJBS. 12/2008; 4(4):255-259.
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ABSTRACT: Circulation on blood extracorporeally through plastic tubing activates several pathways including systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. These phenomena are suspected to participate to neurological and cardiovascular side effects observed in the patients under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A direct relationship, in diabetic patients, between hyperglycemia and morbidity and mortality has been established. However, it is still unclear whether perioperative hyperglycemia has a direct effect on adverse events in cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hyperglycemia on inflammation and oxidative stress in patients under CPB during cardiac surgery. Control patients (n=17) and diabetic (type 2) patients (n=13) were included in this study. Blood samples were drawn before, during and after the CPB. Oxidative stress was evaluated in the plasma by direct and indirect approaches. Direct detection of ascorbyl radicals was assessed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. An index: ascorbyl radical/vitamin C ratio is an indicator of the degree of oxidative stress taking place in the plasma. Oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) values were used as measurement of antioxidant capacity of the plasma. To determine inflammation profile of patients, we measure the evolution of plasma concentration of interleukin 8 (IL-8). During cross clamping and post-CPB, the index ascorbyl radical/vitamin C is increased; the value of the index is more significant in diabetic patients. Concomitantly, ORAC values decreased in all the patients during cross clamping (p<0.05). Results concerning inflammatory index showed that IL-8 levels increased during the CPB. In conclusion, the current study indicates that a systemic oxidative stress occurs during CPB and post-CPB periods and that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the systemic oxidative stress was increased.Annales de Cardiologie et d Angéiologie 07/2008; 57(3):155-60. · 0.30 Impact Factor