Postischemic recovery and oxidative stress are independent of nitric-oxide synthases modulation in isolated rat heart.
ABSTRACT During myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, nitric oxide ((.)NO) was shown to exert either beneficial or detrimental effects. Uncoupled (.)NO synthases (NOS) can generate superoxide anion under suboptimal concentrations of substrate and cofactors. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of NOS modulation on 1) the evolution of functional parameters and 2) the amount of free radicals released during an ischemia-reperfusion sequence. Isolated perfused rat hearts underwent 30 min of total ischemia, followed by 30 min of reperfusion in the presence of N(G)-nitro-D- or L-arginine methyl ester (NAME, 100 microM) or of D- or L-arginine (3 mM). Functional parameters were recorded and coronary effluents were analyzed with electron spin resonance to identify and quantify the amount of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone spin adducts produced during reperfusion. The antioxidant capacities of the compounds were determined with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity test. L-NAME-treated hearts showed a reduction of coronary flow and contractile performance, although neither L-NAME nor L-arginine improved the recovery of coronary flow, left end diastolic ventricular pressure, rate pressure product, and duration of reperfusion arrhythmia, compared with their D-specific enantiomers. A large and long-lasting release of alkyl/alkoxyl radicals was detected upon reperfusion, but no differences of free radical release were observed between D- and L-NAME or D- and L-arginine treatment. These results may indicate that, in our experimental conditions, cardiac NOS might not be a major factor implicated in the oxidative burst that follows a global myocardial ischemia.
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ABSTRACT: Vasospasm is a complication of cardiological procedures such as balloon angioplasty and may be related to vascular oxidant stress. Although nitric oxide donor drugs are often administered to prevent vasospasm, the response to these drugs in balloon-injured arteries has not been studied. Pig coronary arteries were balloon-injured in vitro and relaxations to nitric oxide (NO)-donating and NO-independent vasodilators studied. Generation of superoxide in response to injury was assayed using dihydroethidium. NO formation on addition of the NO donor drugs was studied using an amperometric sensor. Expression of nitrotyrosine, a peroxynitrite marker, was probed using immunocytochemistry. In vitro injury enhanced sensitivity to the NO donors SNAP and SpermineNONOate but blunted the response to isoprenaline or chromakalim. With both donors, NO formation was significantly enhanced in the presence of an injured vessel. Vascular superoxide generation was also increased throughout the vessel wall and a small increase in nitrotyrosine was detected in the injured vessel media following addition of SNAP. In conclusion, injured vessels were more sensitive to NO donors and this appears to be due to enhanced NO generation by the donor molecule. Increased formation of peroxynitrite within the injured vessel may contribute to the enhanced relaxation in injured vessels.Endothelium 01/2007; 14(2):105-13. · 1.65 Impact Factor
Article: [Calpains and cardiac diseases].[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Calpains are a large family of cytosolic cysteine proteases composed of at least fourteen distinct isoforms. The family can be divided into two groups on the basis of distribution: ubiquitous and tissue-specific. Our current knowledge about calpains properties apply mainly to the ubiquitous isozymes, micro- and milli-calpain (classic calpains). These forms are activated after autolysis. Translocation and subsequent interactions with phospholipids of these enzymes increase their activity. Calpains are able to cleave a subset of substrates, as enzymes, structural and signalling proteins. Cardiac pathologies, such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation or clinical states particularly ischemia reperfusion, are associated with an increase of cytosolic calcium and in this regards, calpain activation has been evoked as one of the mediators leading to myocardial damage. Calpain activities have been shown to be increased in hearts experimentally subjected to ischemia reperfusion or during hypertrophy, but also in atrial tissue harvested from patients suffering from atrial fibrillations. These activities have been related to an increase of the proteolysis of different myocardial components, particularly, troponins, which are major regulators of the contraction of cardiomyocytes. Moreover, recent works have demonstrated that calpains are involved in the development of myocardial cell death by necrosis or apoptosis.Annales de Cardiologie et d Angéiologie 10/2004; 53(5):259-66. · 0.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide ((•)NO) is synthetized enzymatically from L-arginine (L-Arg) by three NO synthase isoforms, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS. The synthesis of NO is selectively inhibited by guanidino-substituted analogs of L-Arg or methylarginines such as asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), which results from protein degradation in cells. Many disease states, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, are associated with increased plasma levels of ADMA. The N-terminal catalytic domain of these NOS isoforms binds the heme prosthetic group as well as the redox cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) associated with a regulatory protein, calmodulin (CaM). The enzymatic activity of NOS depends on substrate and cofactor availability. The importance of BH4 as a critical regulator of eNOS function suggests that BH4 may be a rational therapeutic target in vascular disease states. BH4 oxidation appears to be a major contributor to vascular dysfunction associated with hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases as it leads to the increased formation of oxygen-derived radicals due to NOS uncoupling rather than NO. Accordingly, abnormalities in vascular NO production and transport result in endothelial dysfunction leading to various cardiovascular disorders. However, some disorders including a wide range of functions in the neuronal, immune and cardiovascular system were associated with the over-production of NO. Inhibition of the enzyme should be a useful approach to treat these pathologies. Therefore, it appears that both a lack and excess of NO production in diseases can have various important pathological implications. In this context, NOS modulators (exogenous and endogenous) and their therapeutic effects are discussed.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 07/2013; · 7.79 Impact Factor