Incidence and Prognosis of Syncope

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Mass 01702-5827, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 10/2002; 347(12):878-85. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa012407
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Little is known about the epidemiology and prognosis of syncope in the general population.
We evaluated the incidence, specific causes, and prognosis of syncope among women and men participating in the Framingham Heart Study from 1971 to 1998.
Of 7814 study participants followed for an average of 17 years, 822 reported syncope. The incidence of a first report of syncope was 6.2 per 1000 person-years. The most frequently identified causes were vasovagal (21.2 percent), cardiac (9.5 percent), and orthostatic (9.4 percent); for 36.6 percent the cause was unknown. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios among participants with syncope from any cause, as compared with those who did not have syncope, were 1.31 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.51) for death from any cause, 1.27 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.64) for myocardial infarction or death from coronary heart disease, and 1.06 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.77 to 1.45) for fatal or nonfatal stroke. The corresponding hazard ratios among participants with cardiac syncope were 2.01 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.48 to 2.73), 2.66 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.69 to 4.19), and 2.01 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 3.80). Participants with syncope of unknown cause and those with neurologic syncope had increased risks of death from any cause, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 1.32 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.60) and 1.54 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.12), respectively. There was no increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality associated with vasovagal (including orthostatic and medication-related) syncope.
Persons with cardiac syncope are at increased risk for death from any cause and cardiovascular events, and persons with syncope of unknown cause are at increased risk for death from any cause. Vasovagal syncope appears to have a benign prognosis.

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Available from: Leway Chen, Aug 26, 2015
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    • "Syncope is common, with a large prospective cohort of adults showing an incidence of 10.5% over 24 years (822 of 7,814, aged 20–96 years, mean 51.1) (Soteriades et al., 2002). The incidence of syncope increases markedly in the elderly as coronary artery disease and orthostatic intolerance (often from prescribed drugs) move toward ubiquity (Lipsitz et al., 1985). "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinicians who diagnose and manage epilepsy frequently encounter diagnoses of a nonneurological nature, particularly when assessing patients with transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC). Among these, and perhaps the most important, is cardiac syncope. As a group, patients with cardiac syncope have the highest likelihood of subsequent sudden death, and yet, unlike sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) for example, it is the norm for these tragic occurrences to be both easily predictable and preventable. In the 12 months following initial presentation with cardiac syncope, sudden death has been found to be 6 times more common than in those with noncardiac syncope (N Engl J Med 309, 1983, 197). In short, for every patient seen with T-LOC, two fundamental aims of the consultation are to assess the likelihood of cardiac syncope as the cause, and to estimate the risk of future sudden death for the individual. This article aims to outline for the noncardiologist how to recognize cardiac syncope, how to tell it apart from more benign cardiovascular forms of syncope as well as from seizures and epilepsy, and what can be done to predict and prevent sudden death in these patients. This is achieved through the assessment triad of a clinical history and examination, risk stratification, and 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG).
    Epilepsia 12/2012; 53 Suppl 7:34-41. DOI:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2012.03713.x · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    • "Syncope is a common clinical presentation accounting for up to 3% of all Emergency Department (ED) visits and 6% of hospital admissions [1]. Accurate diagnosis and assessment of prognosis [2]are required by ED physicians, as syncope may be due to a wide range of possible etiologies ranging from benign conditions to life-threatening diseases [3] [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Syncope remains challenging for Emergency Department (ED) physicians due to difficulties in assessing the risk of future adverse outcomes. The aim of this meta-analysis is to establish the incidence and etiology of adverse outcomes as well as the predictors, in patients presenting with syncope to the ED. METHODS: A systematic electronic literature review was performed looking for eligible studies published between 1990 and 2010. Studies reporting multivariate predictors of adverse outcomes in patients presenting with syncope to the ED were included and pooled, when appropriate, using a random-effect method. Adverse events were defined as 'incidence of death, or of hospitalization and interventional procedures because of arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease or valvular heart disease'. RESULTS: 11 studies were included. Pooled analysis showed 42% (CI 95%; 32-52) of patients were admitted to hospital. Risk of death was 4.4% (CI 95%; 3.1-5.1) and 1.1% (CI 95%; 0.7-1.5) had a cardiovascular etiology. One third of patients were discharged without a diagnosis, while the most frequent diagnosis was 'situational, orthostatic or vasavagal syncope' in 29% (CI 95%; 12-47). 10.4% (CI 95%; 7.8-16) was diagnosed with heart disease, the most frequent type being bradyarrhythmia, 4.8% (CI 95%; 2.2-6.4) and tachyarrhythmia 2.6% (CI 95%; 1.1-3.1). Palpitations preceding syncope, exertional syncope, a history consistent of heart failure or ischemic heart disease, and evidence of bleeding were the most powerful predictors of an adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: Syncope carries a high risk of death, mainly related to cardiovascular disease. This large study which has established the most powerful predictors of adverse outcomes, may enable care and resources to be better focused at high risk patients.
    International journal of cardiology 12/2011; 167(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.11.083 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    • "The age-adjusted incidence rate among patients with structural heart disease is about twice that among subjects without (10.6 vs. 6.4 per 1000 patient-years). The overall mortality and morbidity associated with syncope is 7.5%, with one-year mortality of 18% to 33% for cardiac syncope, which is noticeably greater than syncope of unknown origin and cerebrovascular syncope (less than 10%); whereas neurallymediated reflex syncope is associated with the same mortality of comparably aged healthy individuals [1] [2] [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This review aims to provide a practical and up-to-date description on the relevance and classification of syncope in adults as well as a guidance on the optimal evaluation, management and treatment of this very common clinical and socioeconomic medical problem. We have summarized recent active research and emphasized the value for physicians to adhere current guidelines. A modern management of syncope should take into account 1) use of risk stratification algorithms and implementation of syncope management units to increase the diagnostic yield and reduce costs; 2) early implantable loop recorders rather than late in the evaluation of unexplained syncope; and 3) isometric physical counter-pressure maneuvers as first-line treatment for patients with neurally-mediated reflex syncope and prodromal symptoms.
    International journal of cardiology 12/2011; 162(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.11.021 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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