The HtrA1 serine protease is down-regulated during human melanoma progression and represses growth of metastatic melanoma cells

Laboratory 'C', CRS, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.56). 10/2002; 21(43):6684-8. DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1205911
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Differential gene expression of cell lines derived from a malignant melanoma or its autologous lymph node metastasis using cDNA arrays indicated down-regulation of PRSS11, a gene encoding the serine protease HtrA1, a homolog of the Escherichia coli protease HtrA, in the metastatic line. Stable PRSS11 overexpression in the metastatic cell line strongly inhibited proliferation, chemoinvasion and Nm23-H1 protein expression in vitro, as well as cell growth in vivo in nu/nu mice. A polyclonal anti-HtrA1 serum demonstrated a significantly higher expression in primary melanomas when compared to unrelated metastatic lesions in a human melanoma tissue array, and down-modulation of HtrA1 expression in autologous lymph node melanoma metastases in seven out of 11 cases examined. These results suggest that down-regulation of PRSS11 and HtrA1 expression may represent an indicator of melanoma progression.

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    ABSTRACT: High temperature requirement protein A1 (HtrA1), a secreted serine protease of the HtrA family, is associated with a multitude of human diseases. However, the exact functions of HtrA1 in these diseases remain poorly understood. We seek to unravel the mechanisms of HtrA1 by elucidating its interactions with chemical or biological modulators. To this end, we screened a small molecule library of 500 bioactive compounds to identify those that alter the formation of extracellular HtrA1 complexes in the cell culture medium. An initial characterization of two novel hits from this screen showed that protoporphyrin IX (PPP-IX), a precursor in the heme biosynthetic pathway, and its metalloporphyrin (MPP) derivatives fostered the oligomerization of HtrA1 by binding to the protease domain. As a result of the interaction with MPPs, the proteolytic activity of HtrA1 against Fibulin-5, a specific HtrA1 substrate in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), was increased. This physical interaction could be abolished by the missense mutations of HtrA1 found in patients with cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL). Furthermore, knockdown of HtrA1 attenuated apoptosis induced by PPP-IX. These results suggest that PPP-IX, or its derivatives, and HtrA1 may function as co-factors whereby porphyrins enhance oligomerization and the protease activity of HtrA1, while active HtrA1 elevates the pro-apoptotic actions of porphyrin derivatives. Further analysis of this interplay may shed insights into the pathogenesis of diseases such as AMD, CARASIL and protoporphyria, as well as effective therapeutic development.
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    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia-related gene, HtrA1 is expressed in decidua and ectoplacental cone.•HtrA1 KO mice showed small placenta and intrauterine growth retardation.•Loss of HtrA1 in EPC affects the cell fate determination of trophoblasts,•Trophoblasts invasion and maternal arteries remodeling were reduced in the KO mice.•The phonotypes of HtrA1 KO mice may recapitulate the early stages of preeclampsia.
    Developmental Biology 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2014.10.015 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human serine protease high temperature requirement A1 (HTRA1) is highly expressed in the placental tissue, especially in the last trimester of gestation. This suggests that HTRA1 is involved in placental formation and function. With the aim of a better understanding of the role of HTRA1 in the placenta, candidate substrates were screened in a placenta protein extract using a gel-based mass spectrometric approach. Protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin cytoplasmic 1, tropomyosin beta chain and ten further proteins were identified as candidate substrates of HTRA1. Among the identified candidate substrates, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) was considered to be of particular interest because of its important role as protease inhibitor. For investigation of alpha-1-antitrypsin as substrate of HTRA1 synthetic peptides covering parts of the sequence of alpha-1-antitrypsin were incubated with HTRA1. By mass spectrometry a specific cleavage site was identified after met-382 (AIPM382↓383SIPP) within the reactive centre loop of alpha-1-antitrypsin, resulting in a C-terminal peptide comprising 36 amino acids. Proteolytic removal of this peptide from alpha-1-antitrypsin results in a loss of its inhibitor function. Beside placental alpha-1-antitrypsin the circulating form in human plasma was also significantly degraded by HTRA1. Taken together, our data suggest a link between the candidate substrates alpha-1-antitrypsin and the function of HTRA1 in the placenta in the syncytiotrophoblast, the cell layer attending to maternal blood in the villous tree of the human placenta. Data deposition: Mass spectrometry (MS) data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000473.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109483. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109483 · 3.53 Impact Factor


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May 19, 2014