Toxic contaminants and their biological effects in coastal waters of Xiamen, China. II. Biomarkers and embryo malformation rates as indicators of pollution stress in fish.
ABSTRACT Baseline information is presented on embryo malformation rate and biomarkers in fish as indicators of sub-lethal stress caused by pollution in coastal waters of Xiamen, PR China. Fish and eggs were sampled from several areas in Xiamen coastal waters (Xiamen Harbour, Maluan and Tongan Bays and East Channel), where varying levels of pollutant input have been documented. Comparative sampling was done at a "cleaner" reference site at Dongshan Island. Embryonic malformation rates, which indicate general water quality, varied with location and species of fish, and exceeded background levels for unpolluted waters (assumed approximately 5%) by up to eightfold at some sites. Generally, sites around Xiamen Harbour show signs of poor water quality having highest mean levels of embryo deformity (20-30%) and these decreased towards open waters (Tongan Bay, Eastern Channel) where abnormalities approached background levels. An indication that toxic contaminants may be having a localised effect in the region, particularly in the harbour was reinforced by the biomarker assays. However, activities of the biomarkers ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase in fish livers indicate no clear pattern, and there is no evidence that fish from the four sampling areas have been more or less exposed to PAHs and other compounds that induce these biomarkers. Antioxidant biomarkers (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione) suggest that exposure to xenobiotics appears to be lowest in Dongshan and Maluan and highest in the harbour and Tongan. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in fish muscle indicated possible effects by organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in Xiamen waters and these effects may be greatest in the area of the harbour.
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ABSTRACT: The present study illustrates an analysis of histological changes; cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) accumulation; and metallothionein (MT) levels in normal and deformed Mediterranean killifish, Aphanius fasciatus (Pisces, Cyprinodontidae), collected from unpolluted (S1) and polluted areas (S2) in the Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia. Metal determination in water and sediment showed that the concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in S2 compared to S1. Deformed fish showed a significantly higher accumulation of Cd, Cu, and Zn and high levels of MTs in their tissues compared to normal ones. Histopathological investigations revealed greater changes in gills, kidney, liver, and bone tissues of fish from the polluted area than those recorded in fish from the reference area. In comparison to normal fish of the polluted area (S2), tissue alterations were more developed in deformed specimens of this site. A possible relationship between metallic pollution, incidence of spinal deformities, and histological changes in A. fasciatus in the polluted site was discussed.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2014; 21(24). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3252-6 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the effects of soil microorganisms on biochemical and physiological response of plants to PAHs, PAH-degrading bacteria (Acinetobacter sp.) and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) were inoculated with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) under four different concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene (0, 50 + 50, 100 + 100, 200 + 200 mg kg(-1)) in soils. Acinetobacter sp. played limited roles on the growth of ryegrass, chlorophyll content, water soluble carbohydrate content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in shoot. By contrast, G. mosseae significantly (P < 0.01) increased ryegrass growth, partially by improving the photosynthetic activity through increasing the chlorophyll content in shoot. G. mosseae also significantly decreased MDA content in shoot. However, G. mosseae significantly increased SOD activity in shoot, which seemed to be resulted from significantly higher pyrene concentrations in shoot. The present study suggested that AM fungi could reduce the damage of cell membranes caused by free radicals, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in mycorrhizal alleviation of plant stress under PAHs. The present study indicated that the dual inoculation was superior to single inoculation in remediating PAHs contaminated soils.International Journal of Phytoremediation 01/2014; 16(2):109-22. DOI:10.1080/15226514.2012.759526 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Degradation of water quality is an emerging problem in many developing countries. Bioassay is an effective approach to monitor quality of water in aquatic environments. Studies have used luminescent bacteria and zebrafish embryos as bioassay tools in monitoring river water quality. In this study, luminous bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67) assay and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity test were performed to assess the ecotoxicity of surface water from the Huangpu River, China, collected during 2012–2013. River water samples inhibited the luminescence [inhibition rates 0–34.6% (±4.82%)] of Q67 and increased the lethal rates and induced morphological abnormalities in zebrafish embryos. The toxicity to luminous bacteria and zebrafish embryos were higher in winter than in summer months. In addition, samples collected in industrial area, urban sampling sites near drainage outlets, and at the intersection of the tributary that flows into the Huangpu River showed higher toxicity.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.10.037 · 2.48 Impact Factor