Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.
ABSTRACT Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.
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Computer Supported Cooperative Work 8: 353–371, 1999.
© 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
Voice Loops as Coordination Aids in Space Shuttle
EMILY S. PATTERSON, JENNIFER WATTS-PEROTTI∗and DAVID D.
Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory, Institute for Ergonomics, The Ohio State University
(∗Now at Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY)
(Received December 2 1998)
Abstract. Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools
for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations
and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels
among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why
the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission
control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in
on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In
addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore
directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular
demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools
to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.
Key words: attention, broadcasting, common ground, coordination, ethnographic study, mission
control, mutual awareness, overhearing, voice loops
In supervisory control, cognitive activities such as monitoring and anomaly
response are often distributed across interdependent sets of practitioners. As
Hughes, Randall, and Shapiro (1992) and others have noted, practitioners in these
domains must be able to coordinate their efforts on a “moment to moment basis,
in response to constantly changing circumstances.” Voice loops, a groupware tech-
nology which allows synchronous communication among groups of people who
are spatially distributed, are used to aid coordination in domains such as air traffic
management, aircraft carrier operations (Rochlin, LaPorte and Roberts, 1987) and
space shuttle mission control.
Voice loops are essential coordination support tools for experienced practi-
tioners in space shuttle mission control. Controllers use the voice loops to directly
communicate with other personnel in mission control. More importantly, however,
controllers use the voice loops to remain aware of the activities of other controllers
and mission events in related shuttle subsystems. Controllers continuously monitor
EMILY S. PATTERSON ET AL.
approximately four voice loops while directly communicating on a primary loop.
By being aware of events when they occur, they can synchronize their activities
with other controllers and with the actions of the astronauts. If something that
is reported on the loops does not match their expectations, they can direct their
attention to that thread of conversation and investigate what the deviations are and
how their own activities might be impacted.
This paper analyzes how voice loops facilitate the coordination of physically
distributed practitioners in space shuttle mission control based on direct observa-
tions of voice loops in use. We describe how mission control is structured and
how the different types of voice loops reflect the organizational structure. Then we
outline the coordination functions that voice loops support and illustrate these func-
tions in an example. We conclude with a discussion of how this analysis provides
insight into the important functions that should be considered in the development
of systems intended to support cooperative work in other event-driven domains.
Our findings are based on direct observations of flight controllers using voice
loops to support their activities during space shuttle operations (see Figure 3
for an excerpt of observed voice loop communications). The observations were
conducted at the Maintenance Mechanical Arm and Crew Systems (MMACS),
Mechanical (Mech), Payloads Officer (Payloads) and Remote Manipulator System
(RMS) flight control consoles. Over 130 hours of observation were conducted
during portions of four actual missions and 27 flight control simulations. Flight
control simulations include a full complement of astronauts and flight controllers
supporting each flight control console. The high-fidelity simulations are used to
train the controllers to respond to unexpected problems.
In addition to these observations, we interviewed controllers during low-tempo
periods in the simulations and missions about how they use voice loops to support
their activities. Controllers described formal and informal protocols that govern
the usage of voice loops in mission control, which loops they monitor, why they
monitor them, and how and when they are expected to speak on the loops. In
addition, we interviewed the personnel who manage the voice loop system to learn
how the specific voice loop assignments are made for each mission, how the loops
are managed during flight operations, and which loops are permanently archived.
3. Cooperative structure of space shuttle mission control
3.1. HIERARCHICAL SUPERVISORY CONTROL STRUCTURE
The voice loop system maps onto the supervisory control structure of mission
control. NASA’s Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center in
Houston, Texas is responsible for managing space shuttle missions from take-
off to touchdown. During missions, teams of flight controllers monitor spacecraft
SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION CONTROL
Figure 1. The front room in the Mission Control Center.
systems and activities 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The head flight controller
is the flight director, referred to as “Flight.” Flight is ultimately responsible for all
decisions related to shuttle operations and so must make decisions that trade off
mission goals and safety risks for the various subsystems of the shuttle. Directly
supporting the flight director is a team of approximately sixteen flight controllers
who are co-located in a single location called the “front room” (Figure 1). These
flight controllers have the primary responsibility for monitoring the health and
safety of shuttle functions and subsystems. For example, one controller is respon-
sible for the electrical subsystems (EGIL) and another for the payload systems
(Payloads). These controllers must have a deep knowledge of their own systems as
well as know how their systems are interconnected to other subsystems (e.g. their
heater is powered by a particular electrical bus) in order to recognize and respond
to anomalies despite noisy data and needing to coordinate with other controllers.
Each of the flight controllers located in the front room has a support staff that is
located in “back rooms.” The front room and back room controllers communicate
with each other through the voice loop system by activating a voice loop channel
through a touch screen and talking into a headset. The back room support staff are
more specialized than the front room controllers on specific shuttle subsystems and
monitor more detailed information sources. For example, the front room controller
responsible for the Maintenance Mechanical Arm and Crew Systems (MMACS)
has supporting staff members who specialize in: (1) the mechanical systems (Mech
EMILY S. PATTERSON ET AL.
I and II), (2) the photo equipment used by the astronauts (Photo/TV), (3) the escape
hatch that would be used in the event of an aborted take-off (Escape), and (4)
in-flight maintenance for the tools used by the astronauts (IFM).
3.2. EXAMPLE OF COORDINATION ACROSS FLIGHT CONTROLLERS
To illustrate how controllers with different scopes of responsibilities coordinate
their activities, consider the case of the unexpectedly high pressure in an Auxiliary
Power Unit’s (APU’s) fuel pump during the STS-62 mission. Fuel pumps are used
to keep mechanical systems warm in the freezing environment of space. During
orbit, the front room mechanical systems controller (MMACS) and his support
staff (Mech) noticed that pressure cycles in an Auxiliary Power Unit’s (APU’s) fuel
pump inlet pressure were higher than expected. The MMACS controller updated
the flight director about the abnormal readings and requested that the crew respond
to the anomaly by opening the fuel isolation valves to equalize the pressure in
the fuel lines and the fuel tank. The flight director approved the request and then
described the plan to the front room communications controller (CAPCOM) who
then relayed the requested action to the astronauts.
The results from this intervention as well as four subsequent interventions were
unexpected and contradictory. Over several days, the MMACS team coordinated
with other front room controllers and various engineers who designed relevant
shuttle subsystems to generate nineteen competing hypotheses as possible explan-
ations for the anomaly. The selected best explanation, that water in the fuel line had
frozen and then thawed, ended up only minimally disrupting mission plans. Other
competing explanations, such as a hydrazine fuel leak that would start a fire upon
re-entry into the atmosphere, would have had many more implications for other
It is clear in this example that coordination was essential to diagnosing the
fault and creating a response plan. The voice loops were important in support-
ing this coordination. The MMACS and Mech controllers were able to work
through detailed diagnoses without moving to the same physical location. The
sequence of communications, from the MMACS controller to the flight director
to the CAPCOM controller to the astronauts, were less error-prone on the public
voice loops system than if the communications had been private because any of
the mission controllers could have intervened if there were miscommunications.
Other subsystem controllers were able to anticipate questions that they might be
asked by listening in on these communications. The MMACS controller did not
have to explicitly update controllers with inter-connected subsystems because the
other controllers were listening to their public updates to the flight director. In addi-
tion, the MMACS controllers were able to listen for unexpected changes in other
controllers’ sub-systems that might provide new information for their ongoing
SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION CONTROL
4. The voice loop system
4.1. VOICE LOOP INTERFACE AND CONTROLS
As previously stated, a voice loop is a real-time auditory channel that connects
physically distributed people. A controller who speaks on a loop broadcasts to all
controllers who are listening in on that loop. A controller monitoring a loop hears
any communication among other controllers connected to that loop.
Multiple voice loops can be monitored at the same time. The multiple loops
require a mechanism for controllers to select and modify which loops they are
monitoring and which they can speak on. The interface is a map of the available
loops. Any controller can choose to monitor any of the available communication
channels by directly manipulating this representation of the space of channels.
By formal communication protocols in mission control, flight controllers have
privileges to speak on only a subset of the loops they can listen in on. In the voice
loop control interface, each channel can be set either to monitor or talk modes.
Only one channel at a time can be set to the talk mode, although many channels
can be monitored at the same time. In order to talk on a loop set to the talk mode, a
controller presses a button on a hand unit or holds down a foot pedal and talks into
Each controller customizes the set of loops they monitor by manipulating the
visual representation of the loops at their console. The controllers can save a
configuration of multiple voice loops on ‘pages’ under their identification code.
The most commonly used loops are grouped together onto a primary page. The
controllers then reorganize and prioritize the loops to fit the particular operational
situation going on at that time by changing the configuration of loops that are being
monitored and by adjusting the relative volume levels on each loop.
The voice loop interface is generally considered to be easy to use and an appro-
priate communication tool for a dynamic environment like space shuttle mission
control. The fundamental display units are visual representations of each auditory
loop, which captures the waycontrollers think about the system. Inaddition, ifindi-
vidual loops are analogous to windows in a visual interface, then the pages of sets
of loops are analogous to the ‘room’ concept in window management (Henderson
and Card, 1986). Controllers are able to customize the interface by putting their
most commonly used loops together on a single ‘page.’ Active loops on these
pages can be dynamically reconfigured in response to the constantly changing
environment. Dynamic allocations of which loops to listen to are done by directly
selecting loops to turn off and on. Controllers increase or decrease the salience of
particular loops by using loop volume controls to adjust relative loudness.
4.2. VOICE LOOP ORGANIZATION REFLECTS MISSION CONTROL STRUCTURE
The voice loop system design reflects the cooperative structure in mission control
(Figure 2). A primary voice loop, the Flight Director loop, is dedicated to
EMILY S. PATTERSON ET AL.
Figure 2. The voice loop structure in Mission Control.
communications between the flight director and the primary controllers in the
front room. All controllers continuously monitor the Flight Director loop, but only
direct communications between the front room controllers and the flight director
areallowed. Because ofthe importance of this loop, only issues ofhigh significance
are discussed on it, and communication is kept clear and concise.
Similarly, all controllers monitor the Air-to-Ground loop between mission
control and the astronauts, but only one controller, CAPCOM, is authorized to
communicate withtheastronauts. CAPCOMisanastronaut andphysically sitsnext
to the flight director because the flight director makes the final decisions on what
should be communicated on this loop. Despite their ability to interact face-to-face,
SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION CONTROL
most of the communications between Flight and CAPCOM are done on the flight
director loop so that other controllers can listen in.
Interactions between front room controllers and their support staff are
conducted on Front-to-Back support loops. These are the loops that are normally
set to the ‘talk’ setting and are often not monitored by other subsystem controllers.
Discussions on these loops are much more detailed and less formal than commu-
nications on higher-priority loops. For example, unexpected telemetry data values
and factors that might account for them would be discussed on these loops.
Conference loops are continuously monitored but lie unused until a situation
arises that requires coordination across subsystem controllers. By having dedicated
conference loops, groups of subsystem controllers that would need to interact
during predictable failure scenarios can be quickly formed without tying up
communications on the other loops. When a meeting between controllers who do
not have a dedicated conference loop needs to be formed, a front room controller
announces on the Flight Director loop for specific controllers to meet on an ad hoc
4.3. MONITORING MULTIPLE LOOPS IN PARALLEL
Each controller typically monitors a minimum of four loops in parallel: the Flight
Director loop, the Air-to-Ground loop, the Front-to-Back loop, and a conference
loop. These loops are only a small subset of the potentially available loops. For
example, 164 voice loops were used during the STS-76 space shuttle mission.
While it may seem difficult to monitor multiple loops in parallel, this ability
is essential to controllers’ activities and goals. For example, during an observed
simulation, the front room mechanical systems controller noticed an abrupt change
in the data on her telemetry screens. In order to determine the cause of this change,
she monitored and interacted with four loops in parallel. By listening for devi-
ations in standard communications on the Air-to-Ground loop, she could track
whether the astronauts were experiencing any abnormal circumstances aboard the
shuttle. Listening to the Flight Director loop kept her aware of whether or not other
controllers werealso seeing strange data patterns. Shecontacted arelated controller
on a conference loop to give him a “heads up” that her systems were functioning
abnormally, and she discussed the details of the data with her back room staff to
determine what might have caused the change in the data. Eventually, she heard
the electrical controller inform the flight director on the Flight Director loop that
an electrical bus had failed. This failure would account for the unexpected changes
in her system data. She contacted the electrical controller on a conference loop
to find out whether the bus could be fixed, and then discussed the impact of this
failure with her support staff over the Front-to-Back loops.
EMILY S. PATTERSON ET AL.
5. Facilitating coordination
The purpose of this paper is to suggest reasons for why the voice loop system
in space shuttle mission control is a successful coordination aid. The voice loop
system is a powerful groupware tool because it allows practitioners to ‘listen in’
on others’ activities while also pursuing their own goals and activities. Perhaps
more importantly, listening in on the voice loops does not interfere with ongo-
ing activities of other personnel. In addition, the voice loop technology supports
the coordination functions of synchronizing activities, gauging when to interrupt
ongoing communications, transferring information about high-level events, and
directing other controllers’ attention.
5.1. LISTENING IN
One might think that voice loops are used primarily for direct communication,
where one controller uses the voice loops to speak directly to another controller.
Although this kind of communication is supported by voice loop technology, the
most important function of the voice loops in mission control is that they afford the
ability to listen in to events and activities that occur across mission processes. The
ability to listen in on discussions on the loops allows controllers to pick up relevant
events and activities without disrupting their ongoing work or the communication
process between the monitored parties.
Similar kinds of coordination have been observed in the control rooms of
other event-driven domains. Luff, Heath, and Greatbach (1992) noticed that under-
ground controllers thought out loud about schedule changes that they made during
crisis situations in Line Control Rooms in the London Underground. When the
controllers expressed changes out loud, other controllers in the vicinity took
note of changes that affected their own schedules without interrupting the busy
controller during the crisis situation. Similarly, Rochlin, La Porte and Roberts
(1987) noted for voice loop communications in aircraft carrier operations that:
“everyone involved ...is part of a constant loop of conversation and verification
taking place over several different channels at once. At first little of this chatter
seems coherent, let alone substantive, to the outside observer ...one discovers that
seasoned personnel do not ‘listen’ so much as monitor for deviations, reacting to
almost anything that does not fit their expectations.”
It is informative to note that we observed that mission controllers who were not
assigned to the STS-76 mission preferred to track what was happening during the
ascent phase by listening to the voice loops in an empty room rather than watching
from the observation deck. They explained that they learned more by listening to
the voice loops than by physically observing the mission controllers in the front
From a researcher’s standpoint, analyzing what personnel are monitoring what
loops and how those configurations change in response to unexpected events gives
a great deal of insight into how mission controllers coordinate. For example, when
SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION CONTROL
the mechanical systems controller (MMACS) announced a hydraulic leak during
the STS-76 mission on the Flight Director loop, many of the other controllers
immediately began monitoring the MMACS Front-to-Back loop. By doing so, they
could prepare to answer questions that they might be asked. Forexample, originally
the MMACS controller recommended shortening the STS-76 mission from 7 days
to 3 days in response to the hydraulic leak. Each controller was asked soon after
this announcement to estimate how shortening the mission would impact his or her
subsystem. By listening in on the MMACS Front-to-Back loop, the controllers had
more time to formulate an estimate of the impact of shortening the mission timeline
than if they had waited for the specific announcement to be broadcast on the Flight
5.2. GROUP SYNCHRONIZATION
Anticipation has been found to be important for effective team coordination in
high-tempo, dynamic situations (Decortis, de Keyser, Cacciabue and Volta, 1991).
When flight controllers are aware of upcoming mission events and activities, they
can anticipate problems in their systems and prepare for future actions that will
be required. Anticipation is important because it allows controllers to synchronize
their communications and actions over time. For example, if a failure occurs in
a subsystem, the flight director will ask related subsystem controllers about the
impacts of that failure on their systems. When controllers hear about the failure
on the Flight Director’s loop, they can anticipate related questions from the flight
director and prepare to answer them without delay. Controllers can also anticipate
actions that will be required of them. For example, an anomaly in one subsystem
might require diagnostic tests in another system. When the controller hears about
the anomaly on the voice loops, he can anticipate the requirement of these tests,
and prepare to conduct them when they are requested.
One way that voice loops aid synchronization is by affording the ability to
track the tempo of mission processes. Since shuttle systems are interconnected,
a failure in one subsystem may cause a cascade of disturbances throughout related
systems. This cascade of disturbances causes an escalation of cognitive activi-
ties as controllers respond to these disturbances (Woods and Patterson, in press).
For example, if an event like a complex anomaly occurs in a shuttle subsystem,
the event triggers diagnostic activity in all related subsystem teams. This activity
generates more communication across teams over the voice loops. Therefore, it is
possible for controllers to track the cascade of disturbances in shuttle systems by
tracking the escalation of activities that occur in response to these disturbances.
This general indication of activity tempo allows controllers to synchronize their
processes and activities with rest of the flight control team.
EMILY S. PATTERSON ET AL.
5.3. GAUGING INTERRUPTIBILITY
In contrast to a system of direct communications where only invited parties are
involved in a conversation, voice loops allow controllers to listen to communica-
tions without announcing their virtual presence. This ability allows controllers to
better gauge the relevance of their communications in relation to what is happening
on a loop before interrupting. Controllers are then better able to time their commu-
nications, either by speeding up or postponing communications in relation to spurts
of activity or by waiting for a pause in the communications to interject.
During our observations, we noticed that controllers gauge the interruptibility
of practitioners outside their immediate team before communicating with them.
When a controller needed to communicate with another controller working on a
different subsystem, the controller would first listen to that controller’s Front-to-
Back support loop. By listening to that loop, he could estimate the controller’s
current workload to judge how interruptible the controller would be in terms of
the criticality of the issues that she is addressing. Using this strategy reduces the
number of unnecessary interruptions and allows controllers to judge the priority
of their item against the ongoing work context. This reduces the chances that a
controller will be forced to direct her attention away from current tasks in order to
receive information about a lower priority item.
When the contacting controller misjudges the interruptibility of the person
whom they are trying to contact, the receiving controller has the option to postpone
communications by replying with “Standby.” The standard protocol for initiating
communications on the loops is to name the person that you wish to speak to in
order to get his or her attention and then identify yourself (e.g. “Flight, MMACS”).
The person who is called should then respond with either “Standby” or “Go ahead.”
With this protocol, the controllers can flexibly negotiate when to start commu-
nications on the loops. Compare these interactions with those conducted on a
single-channel communication system like a standard telephone, where requesting
people to standby would then tie up the only communication channel for both
parties. Similarly, in face-to-face communications, waiting for interactions when
the person to be contacted is busy generally means that the person’s resources are
tied up while waiting for the interaction. In extreme situations, controllers may
interrupt regardless of what other communications are going on. In crisis situ-
ations, controllers will use the Flight Director loop to broadcast critical information
after declaring “Break! Break!” The “Break! Break!” communication is an explicit
protocol that is rarely used and would instantly gain the attention of mission
5.4. INTEGRATING LEVELS OF INFORMATION
A common problem in information design is the display of raw, instantaneous
sensor values rather than integrated information about the monitored process.
For example, the mission control display screens provide continuously updated
SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION CONTROL
telemetry data for system parameters like temperature and pressure. The controllers
mustintegrate this information to determine the system’s global status and behavior
by comparing the displayed data with memorized nominal ranges for specific
contexts. The voice loops, however, allow controllers to take advantage of the
data integration performed by other controllers. Instead of passing raw data about
related systems from one controller to another, voice loops allow controllers to pass
integrated, event-level information between controllers monitoring interconnected
The voice loop system does more than simply make raw data available to
controllers who would not otherwise have access to the data. For example, consider
a hypothetical groupware system where all mission controllers could look at any of
the data screens for any other controller. This system would effectively allow other
controllers to “listen in” at a much lower level of information abstraction without
allowing them to take advantage of processing by the controllers with primary
responsibility for those subsystems.
The ability to pass event-level information is essential to controllers’ tasks and
goals. As mentioned previously, anomalies occurring in one system often cause a
cascade of disturbances through other systems. Therefore, in order for controllers
to meet the goal of anticipating and preparing for potential problems in their
subsystems, they must be aware of events that are happening in related subsys-
tems. The voice loops facilitate this awareness by passing event-level information
between controllers of related subsystems.
Communications on different voice loops provide information at different levels
of abstraction and aggregation. Controllers can shift among these levels by selec-
tively attending to specific loops, while still peripherally monitoring the other
loops. The Flight Director loop functions as an overview of events and activities.
Communications on the Flight Director loop consist of a brief summary of events
related to a subsystem, combined with a recommendation for action. This over-
view loop can be monitored in parallel with Front-to-Back loops, where events
are discussed at greater levels of detail. For example, if there is a hydraulic leak,
controllers must infer this event from unusually low quantities of hydraulic fluid
and pressure. On the Front-to-Back loops, teams of controllers would discuss
detailed information such as thermal factors that might affect the hydraulic fluid
readings. However, instead of describing these detailed factors to the flight director
on the Flight Director loop, the controller responsible for the hydraulic systems
(MMACS) communicates diagnostic results or status (e.g. there is a hydraulic
leak) and implications for modifying mission plans (e.g. shortening mission
EMILY S. PATTERSON ET AL.
5.5. INTEGRATING INFORMATION ABOUT MISSION EVENTS AND
Research has shown that practitioners in process control domains must not only
keep track of the monitored process, but they must also track the activities of
other agents who are affecting that monitored process (Johannesen, Cook and
Woods, 1994; Patterson and Woods, 1997). For example, if the electrical controller
performs a test of an electrical bus, his actions will affect the subsystems that
receive power from that bus. Therefore, controllers of subsystems that depend on
electrical power must be aware of the electrical controller’s assessments and plans.
They must use this information to alter their expectations for nominal telemetry
values and possible contingency plans.
Voice loops provide an elegant view into the processes and activities of other
practitioners. By monitoring discussions on the loops, controllers can pick up
communications about activities performed by other controllers that will eventu-
ally impact their subsystems. The ability to track activities over the voice loops
allows controllers topick up information about the status of processes and activities
without interrupting the controllers involved. If an anomaly in the mechanical
systems occurs, the flight director can monitor the Front-to-Back loops of the
mechanical console to track the status of the diagnosis or response process. This
way, he can track the mechanical controllers’ reasoning processes and progress
without interrupting their activities by asking for an update.
5.6. DIRECTING ATTENTION
In event-driven supervisory control domains, it is critical for practitioners to
dynamically shift their focus of attention to re-orient to newly relevant commu-
nications, events, or activities. The voice loops are a powerful tool for redirecting
controllers’ attention because itallowsthem toremain peripherally awareofothers’
activities while still focusing on their current goals and activities. Background
communications on the loops are occurring constantly. Sometimes these commu-
nications are noise, i.e. they are not relevant to a particular flight controller. But
in other contexts, any of these communications could serve as a signal that they
should interrupt ongoing lines of thought and re-orient their attention.
A basic challenge for any cognitive agent at work is where to focus attention
next in a changing world. Laboratory-based research in attention and perception
has revealed that the object, event, goal, or line of thought that we focus on depends
on the interaction of two sets of activity (Yantis, 1993; Folk, Remington and John-
ston, 1992; Ward, 1997). The first is the set of knowledge-directed, endogenous
processes that depend on the observer’s current knowledge, goals, and expectations
about the task at hand. The second set of processes is stimulus-driven, exogenous
processes, where attributes of the stimulus world elicit attentional capture of shifts
of the observer’s focus. These two sets of processes combine in a perceptual cycle
(Neisser, 1976), where unique events inthe environment shift the focus of attention,
SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION CONTROL
call to mind knowledge, and trigger new lines of thought. The activated knowledge,
expectations, or goals in turn guide further exploration and action.
Broadcast messages are an effective means of redirecting the attention of
multiple practitioners to a particular item. When a broadcast is made on the Flight
Director loop, relevant controllers focus their attention on the message while other
controllers do not respond to the broadcast. Broadcasts are more robust than direct
communications because they eliminate the opportunity for a controller to unin-
tentionally leave someone “out of the loop.” On the other hand, broadcasts have an
associated cost in that they increase the amount of auditory activity that must be
attended to and therefore should be limited to important announcements.
The ability to remain aware of what is happening without utilizing limited
focal attentional resources is generally accepted as an important function in
Computer-Supported Cooperative Work(Dourish and Bellotti, 1992; Woods, 1995;
Gaver, 1997). Different labels have been used to refer to this characteristic of
representations and media for collaboration. For example, Woods (1995) used the
term “preattentive reference.” The label preattentive was chosen because most
models of attentional control include some type of preattentive processing to
support the general cognitive function or competence in natural perceptual fields
that observers/listeners monitor for new events or activities peripherally without
disrupting or diverting focal attention (e.g. LaBerge, 1995). It is preattentive refer-
ence to capture the fact that we are concerned with virtual environments where
external representations and support tools mediate contact with the world. Pre-
attentive reference then refers tohow the design ofexternal representations, support
tools, and communication media affects practitioners’ abilities to remain peripher-
ally aware of other events and others’ activities, either supporting this cognitive
function or undermining it.
6. An illustrative example
We have annotated a transcript from the observed STS-76 mission (Figure 3) to
illustrate the coordinative functions that the voice loops support. This two-minute
excerpt details what the back room Mech controller, who supports the front room
mechanical systems controller (MMACS), was listening to during a segment of the
high-tempo ascent phase.
During this time, only three of his voice loops are active, although he was moni-
toring several others that were not being talked on in that specific time interval.
Communications on the same row occurred at the same time.
During this segment, the back room mechanical systems controller (Mech)
notices an unexpected decrease in hydraulic fluid. The Mech controller speaks on
the Front-to-Back loop in order to direct the attention of the front room controller
who is his supervisor (MMACS) to this system by mentioning that the hydraulic
quantity is decreasing. The MMACS and Mech controllers diagnose the drop in
hydraulic quantity as a hydraulic leak because it is clearly the best explanation for
EMILY S. PATTERSON ET AL.
Figure 3. Voice loop excerpt From the STS-76 mission.
the data. They independently estimate the leak rate and then compare their esti-
mates on the Front-to-Back loop. They decide that the leak rate is approximately
between 0.3–0.6%/min. The front room mechanical systems controller (MMACS)
then updates the flight director on the Flight Director loop about the hydraulic leak.
This update also informs all of the mission control personnel as they are moni-
toring this loop. Note that the update on the Flight Director loop is a higher-level
SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION CONTROL
Figure 3. Continued.
description than on the Front-to-Back loop. In addition, the description of the event
is accompanied by the implied statement that there are no immediate changes to
mission plans because the leak rate is less than the commonly known decision
cut-off of 1%/min. to abort the ascent. The flight director then anticipates that the
MMACS controller will recommend that the astronauts close an isolation valve