"The paper attempts to investigate and identify some of the most important predictors of family size-preferences in Pakistan. Based on cross-sectional data relating to 9,416 currently married women, the results of this study suggest that having one or more sons in the family is the principal predictor of the desired family size. Yet another important predictor is the education of the wife which plays a critical role in the family size determination. The study shows that the preferences for family size do not vary greatly between urban and rural areas."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The available literature in Pakistan is generally lacking in a critical examination of the issues related to intrahousehold resource allocation. This black box is due largely to the lack of individual-level data on dietary intake, anthropometric measures, decision making, time allocation, etc. Such an examination of the intra-household dynamics would shed light on how resources are generated, controlled and distributed in a household and help in the effective design and implementation of suitable policies. This study identifies the data gaps and emphasises the immediate need for a research agenda focusing on the fuller understanding of the intra-household dynamics. Data needs are outlined and a conceptual framework of incorporating gender concerns in the analyses of intrahousehold resource allocation and household food security is presented. Suggestions are made to collect both quantitative as well as qualitative individual level data on various social, economic, demographic, and anthropometric variables. The data set thus generated would give a picture of the household resource base, household endowments, gender relations, and interand intra-household resource allocations that are necessary for the formulation and implementation of suitable and effective policies for benefiting the vulnerable groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study is undertaken to test whether or not there exists gender bias in health care utilisation of sick children in Pakistan. Overall, the results are encouraging, as medical consultation has been sought for by a very high proportion (79 percent) of sick children. Moreover, there do not appear to be significant differences by gender in health care utilisation, be it curative or preventive. This is so in spite of the fact that many studies on various gender-related issues in Pakistan have generally shown significant gender bias in favour of male children. Thus one may conclude that parental altruism prevails at least in the provision of health care to sick children. However, the extent and magnitude of effect varies by geographical, socio-economic, and demographic characteristics of the mother. In view of these findings, efforts should be made to minimise gender differentials among various categories of people so that children living in any circumstances may have equal opportunity of health care utilisation. This will be possible when health care facilities are easily accessible to all. The Lady Health Workers Programme of the Government of Pakistan is a major positive step in this regard. Under this programme, health care facilities are provided at people’s door-step. The expansion of this programme will be extremely beneficial in helping parents to provide health care facilities to sick children, both male and female.
Pakistan development review 01/2000; 39(3):213-234.
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