Induction of micronuclei by zinc in human leukocytes: a study using cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay.
ABSTRACT In the present study, we report the results of the capability of zinc chloride for the induction of micronuclei in cultured human leukocytes using cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Two concentrations of zinc chloride (1.5 x 10(-4) M and 3.0 x 10(-4) M) were used to evaluate the potential of this zinc salt to induce micronucleus formation. This effect was compared with positive (mitomycin C treated) and negative controls (no salt added). Our results show a significant (p < or = 0.001) increase of micronucleated cytokinesis-blocked cells (MNCBs) in zinc-chloride-treated cells compared to the negative control. Induction of MNCBs was not in a dose-dependent manner for zinc chloride concentrations tested. This report is the first to describe the efficiency of cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay to evaluate the genotoxic effects of zinc salt.
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ABSTRACT: Micronucleus (MN) expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes is well established as a standard method for monitoring chromosome damage in human populations. The first results of an analysis of pooled data from laboratories using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and participating in the HUMN (HUman MicroNucleus project) international collaborative study are presented. The effects of laboratory protocol, scoring criteria, and host factors on baseline micronucleated binucleate cell (MNC) frequency are evaluated, and a reference range of "normal" values against which future studies may be compared is provided. Primary data from historical records were submitted by 25 laboratories distributed in 16 countries. This resulted in a database of nearly 7000 subjects. Potentially significant differences were present in the methods used by participating laboratories, such as in the type of culture medium, the concentration of cytochalasin-B, the percentage of fetal calf serum, and in the culture method. Differences in criteria for scoring micronuclei were also evident. The overall median MNC frequency in nonexposed (i.e., normal) subjects was 6.5 per thousand and the interquartile range was between 3 and 12 per thousand. An increase in MNC frequency with age was evident in all but two laboratories. The effect of gender, although not so evident in all databases, was also present, with females having a 19% higher level of MNC frequency (95% confidence interval: 14-24%). Statistical analyses were performed using random-effects models for correlated data. Our best model, which included exposure to genotoxic factors, host factors, methods, and scoring criteria, explained 75% of the total variance, with the largest contribution attributable to laboratory methods.Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 02/2001; 37(1):31-45. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intracellular zinc is thought to be available in a cytosolic pool of free or loosely bound Zn(II) ions in the micromolar to picomolar range. To test this, we determined the mechanism of zinc sensors that control metal uptake or export in Escherichia coli and calibrated their response against the thermodynamically defined free zinc concentration. Whereas the cellular zinc quota is millimolar, free Zn(II) concentrations that trigger transcription of zinc uptake or efflux machinery are femtomolar, or six orders of magnitude less than one atom per cell. This is not consistent with a cytosolic pool of free Zn(II) and suggests an extraordinary intracellular zinc-binding capacity. Thus, cells exert tight control over cytosolic metal concentrations, even for relatively low-toxicity metals such as zinc.Science 07/2001; 292(5526):2488-92. · 31.03 Impact Factor
- Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 09/1997; 392(1-2):1-4. · 3.90 Impact Factor