[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper estimates the risk preferences of cotton farmers in Southern Peru, using the results from a multiple-price-list lottery game. Assuming that preferences conform to two of the leading models of decision under risk--Expected Utility Theory (EUT) and Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT)--we find strong evidence of moderate risk aversion. Once we include individual characteristics in the estimation of risk parameters, we observe that farmers use subjective nonlinear probability weighting, a behavior consistent with CPT. Interestingly, when we allow for preference heterogeneity via the estimation of mixture models--where the proportion of subjects who behave according to EUT or to CPT is endogenously determined--we find that the majority of farmers' choices are best explained by CPT. We further hypothesize that the multiple switching behavior observed in our sample can be explained by nonlinear probability weighting made in a context of large random calculation mistakes; the evidence found on this regard is mixed. Finally, we find that attaining higher education is the single most important individual characteristic correlated with risk preferences, a result that suggests a connection between cognitive abilities and behavior towards risk.
Journal of Population Economics 01/2006; · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the factors that influence condom use among monogamous men in Ondo State, Nigeria. Such information can help improve the design of male-involvement interventions in reproductive health and campaigns to reduce the spread of HIV among the general population. Overall, analysis was restricted to 394 men who were in their first union and reported a monogamous marriage at the time of interview. The analysis used logistic regression models for predicting the effects of selected socioeconomic background characteristics on ever-use of a condom and reasons for its use. Findings showed that 30% of monogamous men had ever used a condom, while about 15% of men were currently using the method. The findings further showed that prevention of pregnancy was a concern among monogamous men, much more than prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. The logistic regression models indicated that ever-use of a condom was associated with age, education, and having been counselled on family planning, while place of residence, frequency of television-watching, and exposure to family-planning counselling were factors associated with motivation for condom use. Although prevention of pregnancy is a major motivation for condom use, many men would use a condom for protection against STIs and prevention of pregnancy simultaneously. Therefore, programme interventions aimed at promoting the use of condoms among men should convey both pregnancy and STIs/HIV/AIDS-prevention messages in one programme.
Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 01/2004; 21(4):358-66. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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