Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine blends as ureteral biomaterials: characterisation of mechanical and surface properties, degradation and resistance to encrustation in vitro.
ABSTRACT This study describes the physicochemical properties and in vitro resistance to encrustation of solvent cast films composed of either poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), prepared using different ratios of high (50,000) to low (4000) (molecular weight) m.wt., or blends of PCL and the polymeric antimicrobial complex, poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-iodine (PVP-I). The incorporation of PVP-I offered antimicrobial activity to the biomaterials. Films were characterised in terms of mechanical (tensile analysis, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis) and surface properties (dynamic contact angle analysis, scanning electron microscopy), whereas degradation (at 37 degrees C in PBS at pH 7.4) was determined gravimetrically. The resistance of the films to encrustation was evaluated using an in vitro encrustation model. Reductions in the ratio of high:low-m.wt. PCL significantly reduced the ultimate tensile strength, % elongation at break and the advancing contact angle of the films. These effects were attributed to alterations in the amorphous content and the more hydrophilic nature of the films. Conversely, there were no alterations in Young's modulus, the viscoelastic properties and glass-transition temperature. Incorporation of PVP-I did not affect the mechanical or rheological properties of the films, indicative of a limited interaction between the two polymers in the solid state. Manipulation of the high:low m.wt. ratio of PCL significantly altered the degradation of the films, most notably following longer immersion periods, and resistance to encrustation. Accordingly, maximum degradation and resistance to encrustation was observed with the biomaterial composed of 40:60 high:low m.wt. ratios of PCL; however, the mechanical properties of this system were considered inappropriate for clinical application. Films composed of either 50:50 or 60:40 ratio of high:low m.wt. PCL offered an appropriate compromise between physicochemical properties and resistance to encrustation. This study has highlighted the important usefulness of degradable polymer systems as ureteral biomaterials.
- SourceAvailable from: Tapan Kumar Dash[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Biodegradable polymer based novel drug delivery systems have provided many avenues to improve therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetic parameters of medicinal entities. Among synthetic biodegradable polymer, poly-є-caprolactone (PCL) is a polymer with very low glass transition temperature and melting point. Owing to its amicable nature and tailorable properties it has been trialed in almost all novel drug delivery systems and tissue engineering application in use/investigated so far. This review aims to provide an up to date of drugs incorporated in different PCL based formulations, their purpose and brief outcomes. Demonstrated PCL formulations with or without drugs, intended for drug delivery and/or tissue engineering application such as microsphere, nanoparticles, scaffolds, films, fibers, micelles etc. are categorized based on method of preparation.Journal of Controlled Release 09/2011; 158(1):15-33. · 7.63 Impact Factor
Article: Polymers as ureteral stents.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ureteral stents find wide application in urology. The majority of patients with indwelling ureteral stents are at an increased risk of urinary tract infection. Stent encrustation and its associated complications lead to significant morbidity. This review critically evaluates various polymers that find their application as ureteral stents with regard to various issues such as encrustation, bacterial colonization, urinary tract infections, and related clinical issues. A complete literature survey was performed, and all the relevant articles were scrutinized thoroughly. We discuss issues of encrustation/biofilm formation, new approaches to their testing, polymers currently available for use, new biomaterials, coatings, and novel ureteral stent designs, thereby providing a complete update on recent advances in the development of stents. Finally, we discuss the future of biomaterial use in the urinary tract.Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 02/2010; 24(2):191-8. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A biocompatible and elastomeric PU was synthesized from low-molecular-weight PCL as macrodiol, CMD as chain extender and HDI as chain linker for applications in the field of peripheral nerve repair. PU cast films supported in vitro attachment and proliferation of NOBEC. The in vitro adhesion and proliferation of S5Y5 neuroblastoma cells on the inner surface of uncoated, gelatin- and PL-coated PU guides were compared. Due to their superior in vitro performance, PL-coated PU guides were tested in vivo for the repair of 1.8 cm-long defects in rat sciatic nerves. The progressive regeneration was confirmed by EMG and histological analysis showing the presence of regenerating fibers in the distal stumps.Macromolecular Bioscience 02/2011; 11(2):245-56. · 3.74 Impact Factor