Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine blends as ureteral biomaterials: characterisation of mechanical and surface properties, degradation and resistance to encrustation in vitro.
ABSTRACT This study describes the physicochemical properties and in vitro resistance to encrustation of solvent cast films composed of either poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), prepared using different ratios of high (50,000) to low (4000) (molecular weight) m.wt., or blends of PCL and the polymeric antimicrobial complex, poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-iodine (PVP-I). The incorporation of PVP-I offered antimicrobial activity to the biomaterials. Films were characterised in terms of mechanical (tensile analysis, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis) and surface properties (dynamic contact angle analysis, scanning electron microscopy), whereas degradation (at 37 degrees C in PBS at pH 7.4) was determined gravimetrically. The resistance of the films to encrustation was evaluated using an in vitro encrustation model. Reductions in the ratio of high:low-m.wt. PCL significantly reduced the ultimate tensile strength, % elongation at break and the advancing contact angle of the films. These effects were attributed to alterations in the amorphous content and the more hydrophilic nature of the films. Conversely, there were no alterations in Young's modulus, the viscoelastic properties and glass-transition temperature. Incorporation of PVP-I did not affect the mechanical or rheological properties of the films, indicative of a limited interaction between the two polymers in the solid state. Manipulation of the high:low m.wt. ratio of PCL significantly altered the degradation of the films, most notably following longer immersion periods, and resistance to encrustation. Accordingly, maximum degradation and resistance to encrustation was observed with the biomaterial composed of 40:60 high:low m.wt. ratios of PCL; however, the mechanical properties of this system were considered inappropriate for clinical application. Films composed of either 50:50 or 60:40 ratio of high:low m.wt. PCL offered an appropriate compromise between physicochemical properties and resistance to encrustation. This study has highlighted the important usefulness of degradable polymer systems as ureteral biomaterials.
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ABSTRACT: In this work, stents were produced from natural origin polysaccharides. Alginate, gellan gum, and a blend of these with gelatin were used to produce hollow tube (stents) following a combination of templated gelation and critical point carbon dioxide drying. Morphological analysis of the surface of the stents was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. Indwelling time, encrustation, and stability of the stents in artificial urine solution was carried out up to 60 days of immersion. In vitro studies carried out with simulated urine demonstrated that the tubes present a high fluid uptake ability, about 1000%. Despite this, the materials are able to maintain their shape and do not present an extensive swelling behavior. The bioresorption profile was observed to be highly dependent on the composition of the stent and it can be tuned. Complete dissolution of the materials may occur between 14 and 60 days. Additionally, no encrustation was observed within the tested timeframe. The ability to resist bacterial adherence was evaluated with Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram-negatives Escherichia coli DH5 alpha and Klebsiella oxytoca. For K. oxytoca, no differences were observed in comparison with a commercial stent (Biosoft(®) duo, Porges), although, for S. aureus all tested compositions had a higher inhibition of bacterial adhesion compared to the commercial stents. In case of E. coli, the addition of gelatin to the formulations reduced the bacterial adhesion in a highly significant manner compared to the commercial stents. The stents produced by the developed technology fulfill the requirements for ureteral stents and will contribute in the development of biocompatible and bioresorbable urinary stents. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 06/2014; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An amphiphilic biodegradable three-arm star-shaped diblock copolymer containing poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) (TEA(PCL-b-PVP)3) has been successfully synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL), RAFT polymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone and a coupling reaction of PCL with carboxyl-terminated PVP (PVP-COOH). In aqueous media, the star-shaped copolymer self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters of near 106 nm. The critical micelle concentration of TEA(PCL-b-PVP)3 copolymer was determined to be 5.96 × 10−3 mg/mL. Folic acid was then used as a model drug to incorporate into TEA(PCL-b-PVP)3 micelles, the drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency is 16.36 and 49.08 %, respectively. In vitro release experiments of the drug-loaded micelles exhibited sustained release behavior and it was affected by the pH of release media. These results indicate that the copolymer may serve as a promising “intelligent” drug delivery alternative.Polymer Bulletin 70(2). · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to prevent soft tissue down-growth into osseous defect areas, membranes are used when placing bone graft materials. These membranes still show shortcomings in their performance and applications. In the current study, we choose an approach to integrate micro-porous surface structures into a macro-porous scaffold. Low porous surfaces were fabricated by dip-coatings. Four different material compositions (titanium dioxide, polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/water, polycaprolactone/β-tricalcium phosphate) were characterised in terms of their appearance, architecture, topographical features and cell response. Titanium dioxide surfaces exhibited rougher and more complex textures, resulting in the highest number of osteosarcoma cells and distinct morphologies in terms of cell spreading. Polycaprolactone-based surfaces showed a smoother topography and enhanced microporosity, but the effect on secretion of the bone markers sclerostin and interleukin-6 from human osteoblasts was lower compared to secretion from cells cultured on titanium dioxide. β-Tricalcium phosphate modification of polycaprolactone did not show any significant improvement regarding cell-material interaction. Nevertheless, surfaces show potential in the mechanical blockage of epithelial and soft tissue cells and may still permit sufficient nutrient transport.Journal of Biomaterials Applications 11/2014; · 2.64 Impact Factor