Fleshy fruits are an essential part of the human diet providing vital vitamins, minerals and other health-promoting compounds. The texture of the ripe fruit has a significant effect on quality and influences consumer acceptance, shelf-life, resistance, and transportability. The development of rational approaches to improve texture and shelf-life depend on understanding the biological basis of fruit ripening. Until recently, work has focused on the isolation of ripening-related genes from a variety of fleshy fruits. However, little is known about the genes that regulate this complex developmental process or whether similar regulatory genes are active in all fruiting species. A major breakthrough would be the identification of generic genes associated with texture and other aspects of ripening in fleshy fruits. In tomato, a small number of single gene mutations exist, such as ripening-inhibitor (rin), non-ripening (nor), Never-ripe (Nr), and Colourless non-ripening (Cnr) which have pleiotropic effects resulting in the reduction or almost complete abolition of ripening. These mutations probably represent lesions in regulatory genes. The cloning of the wild-type alleles of RIN and NOR is reported by Moore et al. in this issue. This review focuses on the texture characteristics of the Cnr mutant. A possible framework for the molecular regulation of fruit texture is discussed and quantitative genetic approaches to determining the generic attributes of fruit texture are explored.
"Mechanical properties of blueberry affect the sensory quality, storability, transportability, resistance to mechanical damage, and susceptibility to spoilage during postharvest handling and marketing (Chiabrando et al., 2009; Li et al., 2011). Knowledge of berry mechanical properties is also important in breeding programs targeting crop varieties to meet specific consumer and postharvest handling requirements (Giongo et al., 2013; Seymour et al., 2002). Hyperspectral imaging is one of the emerging non-destructive methods for evaluating the mechanical properties of food as an alternative to conventional destructive texture measurement and analysis techniques (Chen and Opara, 2013a). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging system was developed to non-destructively evaluate the comprehensive mechanical properties of blueberry. Reflectance and transmittance spectra were extracted from segmented hyperspectral images of whole fruit and correlated with fruit mechanical properties obtained from Texture Profile Analysis and Puncture Analysis using least squares-support vector machine. A random frog spectral selection approach was applied to collect informative wavelengths. Prediction models based on random frog selected reflectance and transmittance spectra gave similar results to those based on respective full spectra. Combined spectra with single random frog, which were obtained by combining random frog selected reflectance and transmittance into one spectral vector, were feasible for predicting hardness, springiness, resilience, force max and final force, with Rp (RPD) values of 0.86 (1.78), 0.72 (1.73), 0.79 (1.78), 0.77 (1.51) and 0.84 (1.72), respectively. When applying random frog again for combined spectra with single random frog, the obtained models were also satisfactory with fewer wavelengths. In conclusion, the use of hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance as well as their combined spectra, coupled with random frog approach, showed a considerable potential for predicting blueberry mechanical properties.
"Moreover, FUL-like genes seem to exert a role in fruit development in two basal eudicots Papaveraceae species by promoting normal development of the fruit wall during fruit maturation (Pabon-Mora et al. 2012). Tomato MADS-Box FUL1/TDR4 is induced during ripening and is probably an ortholog of AtFUL (Seymour et al. 2002, Bemer et al. 2012, Seymour et al. 2013). It has been speculated that FUL1/TDR4 may be a direct target of CNR, a SlySBP family member (Bemer et al. 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is well understood at the molecular level. Contrastingly, most information regarding genetic pathways associated with tomato ovary and early fruit development is still lacking. Here, we investigate the possible role(s) of the microRNA156/SQUAMOSA Promoter-Binding Protein-Like (SPL or SBP-box) module (miR156 node) in tomato ovary development. MiR156-targeted S. lycopersicum SBPs (SlySBPs) were dynamically expressed in developing flowers and ovaries, and miR156 was mainly expressed in meristematic tissues of ovary, including placenta and ovules. Transgenic tomato cv. Micro-Tom plants overexpressing the AtMIR156b precursor exhibited abnormal flower and fruit morphology, with fruits characterized by the growth of extra carpels and ectopic structures. SEM and histological analyzes showed the presence of meristem-like structures inside the ovaries, which are probably responsible for the ectopic organs. Interestingly, genes associated with meristem maintenance and formation of new organs, such as LeT6/TKN2 (a KNOX-like Class-I gene) and GOBLET (a NAM/CUC-like gene), were induced in developing ovaries of transgenic plants as well as in the ovaries of the natural mutant Mouse ear (Me), which also displays fruits with extra carpels. Conversely, the MADS-box genes MACROCALYX (MC) and FUL1/TDR4 and the LEAFY ortholog FALSIFLORA were repressed in developing ovaries of miR156 overexpressors, suggesting similarities with Arabidopsis at this point of the miR156/SPL pathway but with distinct functional consequences in reproductive development. Altogether, these observations suggest that miR156 node is involved in the maintenance of the meristematic state of ovary tissues, thereby controlling initial steps of fleshy fruit development and determinacy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Plant Journal 03/2014; 78(4). DOI:10.1111/tpj.12493 · 5.97 Impact Factor
"Meyve kalite özelliklerine ilişkin korelasyon katsayıları incelendiğinde; özellikle görünüm ve diğer kriterler arasındaki ilişki önemli bulunmasına karşın korelasyon katsayılarının nispeten daha düşük olduğu görülmektedir. Görünüm ile ilişkili kriterlerin tat, aroma ve diğer tekstürel özelliklerin belirlenmesinde güvenilir olmadığı (Seymour et al. 2002; Gessler and Patocchi, 2007) ve birçok durumda iyi bir görüntünün iyi bir tat anlamına gelmediği (Kader 2002) farklı araştırıcılar tarafından da ifade edilmiştir. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, fruit quality attributes were evaluated in hybrid populations of apple breeding program conducted at Eğirdir Fruit Research Station. Consumer properties such as appearance and eating quality were considered, and fruit quality was determined by sensory analysis by expert panelists. The five genotypes (‘91’, ‘109’, ‘177’, ‘63’, ‘120’) (‘Kaşel 37’ x ‘Delbarestivale’) were superior than both parents and ‘Amasya’ apples taken as a reference in multiple comparison test performed based on principal component groups in factor analysis. However, The type ‘368’ (‘Kaşel 41’ X ‘Williams' Pride’) took place among selected type due to it can be evaluated regionally because of early maturation, and the eating quality is much higher than maturing varieties in that period despite the fact that relatively lower scores. The first stage of selection of genotypes was completed with the essay, and 6 types (‘91’, ‘109’, ‘177’, ‘63’, ‘120’ and ‘368’) among 70 genotypes have been found to be much superior in terms of both appearance and others eating quality criteria.
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