Genetic identification and genomic organization of factors affecting fruit texture

Department of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK.
Journal of Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 5.53). 11/2002; 53(377):2065-71.
Source: PubMed


Fleshy fruits are an essential part of the human diet providing vital vitamins, minerals and other health-promoting compounds. The texture of the ripe fruit has a significant effect on quality and influences consumer acceptance, shelf-life, resistance, and transportability. The development of rational approaches to improve texture and shelf-life depend on understanding the biological basis of fruit ripening. Until recently, work has focused on the isolation of ripening-related genes from a variety of fleshy fruits. However, little is known about the genes that regulate this complex developmental process or whether similar regulatory genes are active in all fruiting species. A major breakthrough would be the identification of generic genes associated with texture and other aspects of ripening in fleshy fruits. In tomato, a small number of single gene mutations exist, such as ripening-inhibitor (rin), non-ripening (nor), Never-ripe (Nr), and Colourless non-ripening (Cnr) which have pleiotropic effects resulting in the reduction or almost complete abolition of ripening. These mutations probably represent lesions in regulatory genes. The cloning of the wild-type alleles of RIN and NOR is reported by Moore et al. in this issue. This review focuses on the texture characteristics of the Cnr mutant. A possible framework for the molecular regulation of fruit texture is discussed and quantitative genetic approaches to determining the generic attributes of fruit texture are explored.

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Available from: Graham John King, Oct 14, 2015
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    • "Similarly, traits related to fruit mechanical properties were mainly limited to flesh firmness determined by penetrometry and compression stiffness. Indeed, QTLs for compression measures have been detected on LG01, LG06, LG08 and LG15 in 'Prima' × 'Fiesta' cross (King et al. 2001), whereas QTLs for fruit firmness have been mapped mainly on linkage groups LG01, LG10 and LG15 (King et al. 2000; Harada et al. 2000; Maliepaard et al. 2001; Seymour et al. 2002; Zhu and Barritt 2008; Zhu et al. 2012; Costa et al. 2010, 2012; Longhi et al. 2012). Several genes involved in fruit softening have been identified within the confidence intervals of these QTLs, i.e. ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylase synthase 1 and 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylase oxidase (ACS1 and ACO1, Oraguzie et al. 2007; Costa et al. 2005), cell wall loosening genes expansin (Exp7, Costa et al. 2008) and polygalacturonase (PG1, Longhi et al. 2013). "
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    • "Mechanical properties of blueberry affect the sensory quality, storability, transportability, resistance to mechanical damage, and susceptibility to spoilage during postharvest handling and marketing (Chiabrando et al., 2009; Li et al., 2011). Knowledge of berry mechanical properties is also important in breeding programs targeting crop varieties to meet specific consumer and postharvest handling requirements (Giongo et al., 2013; Seymour et al., 2002). Hyperspectral imaging is one of the emerging non-destructive methods for evaluating the mechanical properties of food as an alternative to conventional destructive texture measurement and analysis techniques (Chen and Opara, 2013a). "
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    • "Moreover, FUL-like genes seem to exert a role in fruit development in two basal eudicots Papaveraceae species by promoting normal development of the fruit wall during fruit maturation (Pabon-Mora et al. 2012). Tomato MADS-Box FUL1/TDR4 is induced during ripening and is probably an ortholog of AtFUL (Seymour et al. 2002, Bemer et al. 2012, Seymour et al. 2013). It has been speculated that FUL1/TDR4 may be a direct target of CNR, a SlySBP family member (Bemer et al. 2012). "
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