A three-source model for the calculation of head scatter factors.
ABSTRACT Accurate determination of the head scatter factor Sc is an important issue, especially for intensity modulated radiation therapy, where the segmented fields are often very irregular and much less than the collimator jaw settings. In this work, we report an Sc calculation algorithm for symmetric, asymmetric, and irregular open fields shaped by the tertiary collimator (a multileaf collimator or blocks) at different source-to-chamber distance. The algorithm was based on a three-source model, in which the photon radiation to the point of calculation was treated as if it originated from three effective sources: one source for the primary photons from the target and two extra-focal photon sources for the scattered photons from the primary collimator and the flattening filter, respectively. The field mapping method proposed by Kim et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1593-1604 (1998)] was extended to two extra-focal source planes and the scatter contributions were integrated over the projected areas (determined by the detector's eye view) in the three source planes considering the source intensity distributions. The algorithm was implemented using Microsoft Visual C/C++ in the MS Windows environment. The only input data required were head scatter factors for symmetric square fields, which are normally acquired during machine commissioning. A large number of different fields were used to evaluate the algorithm and the results were compared with measurements. We found that most of the calculated Sc's agreed with the measured values to within 0.4%. The algorithm can also be easily applied to deal with irregular fields shaped by a multileaf collimator that replaces the upper or lower collimator jaws.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A collapsed cone convolution algorithm was applied to a treatment planning system for the calculation of dose distributions. The distribution of beam fluences was determined using a three-source model by considering the source strengths of the primary beam, the beam scattered from the primary collimators, and an extra beam scattered from extra structures in the gantry head of the radiotherapy treatment machine. The distribution of the total energy released per unit mass (TERMA) was calculated from the distribution of the fluence by considering several physical effects such as the emission of poly-energetic photon spectra, the attenuation of the beam fluence in a medium, the horn effect, the beam-softening effect, and beam transmission through collimators or multi-leaf collimators. The distribution of the doses was calculated by using the convolution of the distribution of the TERMA and the poly-energetic kernel. The distribution of the kernel was approximated to several tens of collapsed cone lines to express the energies transferred by the electrons that originated from the interactions between the photons and the medium. The implemented algorithm was validated by comparing the calculated percentage depth doses (PDDs) and dose profiles with the measured PDDs and relevant profiles. In addition, the dose distribution for an irregular-shaped radiation field was verified by comparing the calculated doses with the measured doses obtained via EDR2 film dosimetry and with the calculated doses obtained using a different treatment planning system based on the pencil beam algorithm (Eclipse, Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The majority of the calculated doses for the PDDs, the profiles, and the irregular-shaped field showed good agreement with the measured doses to within a 2% dose difference, except in the build-up regions. The implemented algorithm was proven to be efficient and accurate for clinical purposes in radiation therapy, and it was found to be easily implementable in treatment planning systems.Journal- Korean Physical Society 12/2013; 61(12). · 0.51 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the present work, phase-space data files (phsp) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for different accelerators were used in order to develop a Virtual Source Model (VSM) for clinical photon beams. Spectral energy distributions extracted from supplied phsp files were used to define the radiation pattern of a virtual extended source in a hybrid model which is completed with a virtual diaphragm used to simulate both electron contamination and the shape of the penumbra region. This simple virtual model was used as the radiation source for dosimetry calculations in a water phantom. The proposed model proved easy to build and test, and good agreement with clinical accelerators dosimetry measurements were obtained for different field sizes. Our results suggest this simple method could be useful for treatment planning systems (TPS) verification purposes.Physica Medica 08/2013; · 1.17 Impact Factor