Dysfunction of mitochondria in human skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT Skeletal muscle is strongly dependent on oxidative phosphorylation for energy production. Because the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes and obesity entails dysregulation of the oxidation of both carbohydrate and lipid fuels, the current study was undertaken to examine the potential contribution of perturbation of mitochondrial function. Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy during fasting conditions from lean (n = 10) and obese (n = 10) nondiabetic volunteers and from volunteers with type 2 diabetes (n = 10). The activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O(2) oxidoreductase, reflecting the overall activity of the respiratory chain, was measured in a mitochondrial fraction by a novel method based on providing access for NADH to intact mitochondria via alamethicin, a channel-forming antibiotic. Creatine kinase and citrate synthase activities were measured as markers of myocyte and mitochondria content, respectively. Activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O(2) oxidoreductase was normalized to creatine kinase activity, as was citrate synthase activity. NADH:O(2) oxidoreductase activity was lowest in type 2 diabetic subjects and highest in the lean volunteers (lean 0.95 +/- 0.17, obese 0.76 +/- 0.30, type 2 diabetes 0.56 +/- 0.14 units/mU creatine kinase; P < 0.005). Also, citrate synthase activity was reduced in type 2 diabetic patients (lean 3.10 +/- 0.74, obese 3.24 +/- 0.82, type 2 diabetes 2.48 +/- 0.47 units/mU creatine kinase; P < 0.005). As measured by electron microscopy, skeletal muscle mitochondria were smaller in type 2 diabetic and obese subjects than in muscle from lean volunteers (P < 0.01). We conclude that there is an impaired bioenergetic capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria in type 2 diabetes, with some impairment also present in obesity.
Article: The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Controls Circadian Energy Metabolism and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Disturbances in the circadian system are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we studied the direct contribution of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central pacemaker in the circadian system, in the development of insulin resistance. Exclusive bilateral SCN lesions in male C57Bl/6J mice, as verified by immunochemistry, showed a small but significant increase in body weight (+17%), which was accounted for by an increase in fat mass. In contrast, mice with collateral damage to the ventromedial hypothalamus and paraventricular nucleus showed severe obesity and insulin resistance. Mice with exclusive SCN ablation revealed a loss of circadian rhythm in activity, oxygen consumption, and food intake. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis 8 weeks after lesioning showed that the glucose infusion rate was significantly lower in SCN lesioned mice compared with sham-operated mice (-63%). Although insulin potently inhibited endogenous glucose production (-84%), this was greatly reduced in SCN lesioned mice (-7%), indicating severe hepatic insulin resistance. Our data show that SCN malfunctioning plays an important role in the disturbance of energy balance and suggest that an absence of central clock activity, in a genetically intact animal, may lead to the development of insulin resistance.Diabetes 12/2012; · 8.29 Impact Factor
Article: High oxidative capacity due to chronic exercise training attenuates lipid-induced insulin resistance.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fat accumulation in skeletal muscle combined with low mitochondrial oxidative capacity is associated with insulin resistance (IR). Endurance-trained athletes, characterized by a high oxidative capacity, have elevated intramyocellular lipids, yet are highly insulin sensitive. We tested the hypothesis that a high oxidative capacity could attenuate lipid-induced IR. Nine endurance-trained (age = 23.4 ± 0.9 years; BMI = 21.2 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) and 10 untrained subjects (age = 21.9 ± 0.9 years; BMI = 22.8 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) were included and underwent a clamp with either infusion of glycerol or intralipid. Muscle biopsies were taken to perform high-resolution respirometry and protein phosphorylation/expression. Trained subjects had ∼32% higher mitochondrial capacity and ∼22% higher insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05 for both). Lipid infusion reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by 63% in untrained subjects (P < 0.05), whereas this effect was blunted in trained subjects (29%, P < 0.05). In untrained subjects, lipid infusion reduced oxidative and nonoxidative glucose disposal (NOGD), whereas trained subjects were completely protected against lipid-induced reduction in NOGD, supported by dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase. We conclude that chronic exercise training attenuates lipid-induced IR and specifically attenuates the lipid-induced reduction in NOGD. Signaling data support the notion that high glucose uptake in trained subjects is maintained by shuttling glucose toward storage as glycogen.Diabetes 07/2012; 61(10):2472-8. · 8.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression and mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whether this association is causally involved in the development of insulin resistance or is only a consequence of this condition has not been clearly determined. Here we studied the effects of adipose-specific deficiency of PGC-1α on systemic glucose homeostasis. Loss of PGC-1α in white fat resulted in reduced expression of the thermogenic and mitochondrial genes in mice housed at ambient temperature, whereas gene expression patterns in brown fat were not altered. When challenged with a high-fat diet, insulin resistance was observed in the mutant mice, characterized by reduced suppression of hepatic glucose output. Resistance to insulin was also associated with an increase in circulating lipids, along with a decrease in the expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism and fatty acid uptake in adipose tissues. Taken together, these data demonstrate a critical role for adipose PGC-1α in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and a potentially causal involvement in the development of insulin resistance.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2012; 109(24):9635-40. · 9.68 Impact Factor