Article

Point mutants of EHEC intimin that diminish Tir recognition and actin pedestal formation highlight a putative Tir binding pocket.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worchester, MA, USA.
Molecular Microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.96). 10/2002; 45(6):1557-73. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.03137.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attachment to host cells by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is associated with the formation of a highly organized cytoskeletal structure containing filamentous actin, termed an attaching and effacing (AE) lesion. Intimin, an outer membrane protein of EHEC, is required for the formation of AE lesions, as is Tir, a bacterial protein that is translocated into the host cell to function as a receptor for intimin. We established a yeast two-hybrid assay for intimin-Tir interaction and, after random mutagenesis, isolated 24 point mutants in intimin, which disrupted Tir recognition in this system. Analysis of 11 point mutants revealed a correlation between recognition of recombinant Tir and the ability to trigger AE lesions. Many of the mutations fell within a 50-residue region near the C-terminus of intimin. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of this region revealed four residues (Ser890, Thr909, Asn916 and Asn927) that are critical for Tir recognition. Mapping the sequences of EHEC intimin and Tir onto the crystal structure of the intimin-Tir complex of enteropathogenic E. coli predicts that each of these four intimin residues lies at the intimin-Tir interface and contributes to a pocket that interacts with Ile298 of EHEC Tir. Thus, this genetic approach to intimin function both identified residues critical for Tir binding and demonstrated a correlation between the ability to bind Tir and the ability to trigger actin focusing.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
65 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several bacterial species have evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. These effectors have the capacity to modulate host cell pathways in order to promote bacterial survival and replication. The spatial and temporal context in which the effectors exert their biochemical activities is crucial for their function. To fully understand effector function in the context of infection, we need to understand the mechanisms that lead to the precise subcellular localization of effectors following their delivery into host cells. Recent studies have shown that bacterial effectors exploit host cell machinery to accurately target their biochemical activities within the host cell.
    Nature Reviews Microbiology 05/2013; 11(5):316-26. · 22.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intrinsically disordered protein (IDP)-mediated interactions are often characterized by low affinity but high specificity. These traits are essential in signaling and regulation that require reversibility. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) exploit this situation by commandeering host cytoskeletal signaling to stimulate actin assembly beneath bound bacteria, generating "pedestals" that promote intestinal colonization. EHEC translocates two proteins, EspF(U) and Tir, which form a complex with the host protein IRTKS. The interaction of this complex with N-WASP triggers localized actin polymerization. We show that EspF(U) is an IDP that contains a transiently α-helical N-terminus and dynamic C-terminus. Our structure shows that single EspF(U) repeat forms a high-affinity trimolecular complex with N-WASP and IRTKS. We demonstrate that bacterial and cellular ligands interact with IRTKS SH3 in a similar fashion, but the bacterial protein has evolved to outcompete cellular targets by utilizing a tryptophan switch that offers superior binding affinity enabling EHEC-induced pedestal formation.
    Structure 08/2012; 20(10):1692-703. · 5.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Upon binding to intestinal epithelial cells, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Citrobacter rodentium trigger formation of actin pedestals beneath bound bacteria. Pedestal formation has been associated with enhanced colonization, and requires intimin, an adhesin that binds to the bacterial effector translocated intimin receptor (Tir), which is translocated to the host cell membrane and promotes bacterial adherence and pedestal formation. Intimin has been suggested to also promote cell adhesion by binding one or more host receptors, and allelic differences in intimin have been associated with differences in tissue and host specificity. We assessed the function of EHEC, EPEC, or C. rodentium intimin, or a set of intimin derivatives with varying Tir-binding abilities in animal models of infection. We found that EPEC and EHEC intimin were functionally indistinguishable during infection of gnotobiotic piglets by EHEC, and that EPEC, EHEC, and C. rodentium intimin were functionally indistinguishable during infection of C57BL/6 mice by C. rodentium. A derivative of EHEC intimin that bound Tir but did not promote robust pedestal formation on cultured cells was unable to promote C. rodentium colonization of conventional mice, indicating that the ability to trigger actin assembly, not simply to bind Tir, is required for intimin-mediated intestinal colonization. Interestingly, streptomycin pre-treatment of mice eliminated the requirement for Tir but not intimin during colonization, and intimin derivatives that were defective in Tir-binding still promoted colonization of these mice. These results indicate that EPEC, EHEC, and C. rodentium intimin are functionally interchangeable during infection of gnotobiotic piglets or conventional C57BL/6 mice, and that whereas the ability to trigger Tir-mediated pedestal formation is essential for colonization of conventional mice, intimin provides a Tir-independent activity during colonization of streptomycin pre-treated mice.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2012; 3:11. · 3.90 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
0 Downloads