To investigate whether the addition of iodized salt to daily diet in thyroidectomized patients for nontoxic goitre could influence the effectiveness of nonsuppressive L-thyroxine (L-T4) therapy on thyroid remnant size, during 12 months' follow-up after thyroid surgery.
A consecutive series of selected 139 patients (26 males, 113 females; median age 45 years, range 30-69 years) living in a moderate iodine-deficient area, and undergoing thyroid surgery for nontoxic multinodular goitre, was enrolled. Patients were assigned randomly to two different therapeutic regimens: 70 patients received L-T4 therapy alone (Gr. L-T4), while the remaining 69 patients took iodized salt on a daily basis in addition to L-T4 treatment (Gr. L-T4 + I). In both groups, the initial L-T4 dose was 1.5 microg/kg/day, which, in our experience, has been shown to be intermediate between suppressive and replacement doses. To avoid the risks of mild thyrotoxicosis and to limit the excessive TSH stimulation of the thyroid remnant, the L-T4 dose was adjusted in those patients with serum TSH levels outside the lowest two-thirds of the normal range (0.3-2.5 mU/l). An ultrasound evaluation of thyroid remnant size was performed after thyroid surgery and 12 months later.
After surgery, the median thyroid remnant volume was 3.5 ml (range 0.4-13.9 ml) in Gr. L-T4 and 4.6 ml (range 0.5-12.7 ml) in Gr. L-T4 + I (P = 0.06). After 1 year of follow-up, the patients treated with L-T4 + I obtained a remnant volume reduction (-39.7%, range -87.0% to +91.2%) significantly (P = 0.006) greater than that observed in patients assuming L-T4 alone (-10.2%, range -89.4% to +85.0%). However, the percentage of patients showing an increase in remnant size in the months following surgery was higher in Gr. L-T4 than in Gr. L-T4 + I (22/60 vs. 9/66; P = 0.01). In Gr. L-T4 patients the thyroid remnant volume variation throughout 12 months of treatment was correlated significantly with the size of the thyroid remnant found at the first ultrasound evaluation (R(2) = 0.3; P < 0.001). No such correlation was found in Gr. L-T4 + I patients, for whom the therapy maintains a similar effectiveness in patients with either a large or a small postsurgery thyroid remnant. In patients treated with L-T4 alone, the remnant volume variation was correlated significantly with the median serum TSH values attained in the course of treatment (R2 = 0.4; P < 0.001). The highest reduction in remnant volume was observed only by lowering the serum TSH concentrations. In patients treated with L-T4 plus iodine, instead, the thyroid remnant volume reduction occurred independently of the plasma TSH levels attained in the course of treatment.
Our short-term prospective and randomized study leads us to conclude that, in patients living in a moderate iodine-deficient area and undergoing thyroid surgery for nontoxic goitre: (1) the iodine prophylaxis improves the effects of postsurgery nonsuppressive L-T4 therapy on thyroid remnant size. (2) In patients treated with L-T4 alone the therapeutic effectiveness decreases in the presence of a large postsurgery thyroid remnant. With the addition of iodine, the L-T4 maintains a similar efficacy in patients with either a large or a small remnant. (3) During treatment with L-T4 alone the highest therapeutic effectiveness is attained by lowering the plasma TSH concentration. With the addition of iodized salt to the daily diet the effects of L-T4 on remnant size are relevant independently of the TSH levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iodine deficiency is the main cause for potentially preventable mental retardation in childhood, as well as causing goitre and hypothyroidism in people of all ages. It is still prevalent in large parts of the world.
To assess the effects of iodised salt in comparison with other forms of iodine supplementation or placebo in the prevention of iodine deficiency disorders.
We searched the Cochrane Library, Medline, the Register of Chinese trials developed by the Chinese Cochrane Centre, and the Chinese Med Database. We performed handsearching of a number of journals (Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases, Chinese Journal of Epidemiology, Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, and Studies of Trace Elements and Health up to February 2001), and searched reference lists, databases of ongoing trials and the Internet. Date of latest search: November 2001.
We included prospective controlled studies of iodised salt versus other forms of iodine supplementation or placebo in people living in areas of iodine deficiency. Studies reported mainly goitre rates and urinary iodine excretion as outcome measures.
The initial data selection and quality assessment of trials was done independently by two reviewers. Subsequently, after the scope of the review was slightly widened from including only randomised controlled trials to including non-randomised prospective comparative studies, a third reviewer repeated the trials selection and quality assessment. As the studies identified were not sufficiently similar and not of sufficient quality, we did not do a meta-analysis but summarised the data in a narrative format.
We found six prospective controlled trials relating to our question. Four of these were described as randomised controlled trials, one was a prospective controlled trial that did not specify allocation to comparison groups, and one was a repeated cross-sectional study comparing different interventions. Comparison interventions included non-iodised salt, iodised water, iodised oil, and salt iodisation with potassium iodide versus potassium iodate. Numbers of participants in the trials ranged from 35 to 334; over 20,000 people were included in the cross-sectional study. Three studies were in children only, two investigated both groups of children and adults and one investigated pregnant women. There was a tendency towards goitre reduction with iodised salt, although this was not significant in all studies. There was also an improved iodine status in most studies (except in small children in one of the studies), although urinary iodine excretion did not always reach the levels recommended by the WHO. None of the studies observed any adverse effects of iodised salt.
The results suggest that iodised salt is an effective means of improving iodine status. No conclusions can be made about improvements in other, more patient-oriented outcomes, such as physical and mental development in children and mortality. None of the studies specifically investigated development of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, which can be easily overlooked if just assessed on the basis of symptoms. High quality controlled studies investigating relevant long term outcome measures are needed to address questions of dosage and best means of iodine supplementation in different population groups and settings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solitary thyroid nodule is an important pathology with an incidence of 2-5% in Italian population. The diagnosis was based on clinical exam, laboratory tests and ultrasonographic evaluation.
The study undertook has the purpose to assess the usefulness between lobe-isthmusectomy (with corresponding risk of possible relapse and complications for reintervention) and total thyroidectomy, (with corresponding post-surgical treatment complications), for benign thyroid disease with solitary nodule, on selected cases for disease and corresponding risk factors, in the retrospective clinical study, using laboratory tests and ultrasonographic evaluation. The study was conducted on 80 patients admitted from 1994 to 2000 with diagnosis of benign thyroid nodule and operated with lobeisthmusectomy. In seven patients the operation had to be converted in total thyroidectomy.
Operative mortality was nil and long-term results at a mean follow-up of three years are encouraging.
The main advantages of lobe-isthmusectomy for benign solitary thyroid nodule consist in less postoperative complications and less hospital stay.
Therefore our experience has carried us to consider the lobectomy which treatment choice for all those benign thyroid diseases, with, solitary nodule.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to identify the factors that are predictive of recurrence after thyroid lobectomy for unilateral non-toxic thyroid goiter in an endemic region through a multivariate analysis.
Two hundred sixty-eight consecutive patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy and who were evaluated by the same endocrinologist were included. Univariate and multivariate analysis analyzed the relationship between sex, age, preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone, duration of disease, duration of levothyroxine (LT4) preoperative therapy, cytologic results, histologic results, resected thyroid weight, numbers and diameters of thyroid nodules, morphologic alterations of the remnant lobe, follow-up length, postoperative LT4 therapy, ultrasonographic evidence of recurrence, and reoperation.
The incidence of recurrence was 33.9% (91/268 patients) after a mean follow-up time of 79.9 months (range, 12-251 months), female sex ( P = .016), multiple nodules ( P = .017), and lack of postoperative LT4 therapy ( P = .0009) were predictive factors of recurrence. Reoperation was performed in 20 patients (7.4%); factors that were predictive of reoperation were the presence of multiple nodules ( P = .008), resected thyroid weight ( P = .00006), and lack of postoperative hormonal therapy ( P = .0005).
Thyroid lobectomy for unilateral non-toxic goiter, when combined with suppressive or substitutive thyroxin therapy, resulted in a low rate of recurrence and reoperation in an endemic area.
Surgery 01/2005; 136(6):1247-51. DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2004.06.054 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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