Fatigue suppresses ipsilateral intracortical facilitation.
ABSTRACT Experimental data in animals and humans have demonstrated connections between right and left motor cortices. Interactions between these cortical areas can be explored with electrical or magnetic stimulation. In the present study we examined the interhemispheric effect of fatigue on intracortical facilitation (ICF) and inhibition (ICI) using a paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm. Ten healthy subjects performed pinch grips with their left hand with 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) until fatigue occurred. In the control experiment, the same number of pinch grips was performed with 5% MVC without inducing fatigue. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) produced by single and paired pulse TMS over the left motor cortex were recorded from right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) and right abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADM) before and after the tasks. ICF of the right FDI was significantly reduced after fatigue ( P=0.0008). Fifteen minutes after finishing the task ICF had returned to baseline values. There was no change of ICF of right FDI in the control experiment without inducing fatigue. In both experiments the right ADM did not show significant MEP changes. Additional control experiments showed that M-responses and F-waves were unchanged in right FDI after performing the fatigue task with left FDI, and TMS test pulse amplitudes were significantly reduced in left FDI after fatigue. Fatigue caused by pinch grips induces a short-lasting and task-specific suppression of intracortical facilitation in the motor cortex of an homologous contralateral hand muscle. These results indicate interhemispheric interactions between the two motor cortices that are still effective after cessation of movements.
- SourceAvailable from: Harry J Gould[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microstimulation and anatomical techniques were combined to reveal the organization and interhemispheric connections of motor cortex in owl monkeys. Movements of body parts were elicited with low levels of electrical stimulation delivered with microelectrodes over a large region of precentral cortex. Movements were produced from three physiologically defined cortical regions. The largest region, the primary motor field, M-I, occupied a 4-6-mm strip of cortex immediately rostral to area 3a. M-I represented body movements from tail to mouth in a grossly somatotopic mediolateral cortical sequence. Specific movements were usually represented at more than one location, and often at as many as six or seven separate locations within M-I. Although movements related to adjoining joints typically were elicited from adjacent cortical sites, movements of nonadjacent joints also were produced by stimulation of adjacent sites. Thus, both sites producing wrist movements and sites producing shoulder movements were found next to sites producing digit movements. Movements of digits of the forepaw were evoked at several locations including a location rostral to or within cortex representing the face. Overall, the somatotopic organization did not completely correspond to previous concepts of M-I in that it was neither a single topographic representation, nor two serial or mirror symmetric representations, nor a "nesting about joints" representation. Instead, M-I is more adequately described as a mosaic of regions, each representing movements of a restricted part of the body, with multiple representations of movements that tend to be somatotopically related. A second pattern of representation of body movements, the supplementary motor area (SMA), adjoined the rostromedial border of M-I. SMA represented the body from tail to face in a caudorostral cortical sequence, with the most rostral portion related to eye movements. Movements elicited by near-threshold levels of current were often restricted to a single muscle or joint, as in M-I, and the same movement was sometimes multiply represented. Typically, more intense stimulating currents were required for evoking movements in SMA than in M-I. A third motor region, the frontal eye field (FEF), bordered the representation of eyelids and face in M-I. Eye movements elicited from this cortex consisted of rapid horizontal and downward deviation of gaze into the contralateral visual hemifield.The Journal of Comparative Neurology 06/1986; 247(3):297-325. · 3.66 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To test to which extent the increase in ipsilateral motor cortex excitability during unimanual motor tasks shows hemispheric asymmetry. Six right-handed healthy subjects performed one of several motor tasks of different complexity (including rest) with one hand (task hand) while the other hand (non-task hand) was relaxed. Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to the motor cortex ipsilateral to the task hand and the amplitude of the motor evoked potential (MEP) in the non-task hand was measured. In one session, the task hand was the right hand, in the other session it was the left hand. The effects of motor task and side of the task hand were analyzed. Spinal motoneuron excitability was assessed using F-wave measurements. Motor tasks, in particular complex finger sequences, resulted in an increase in MEP amplitude in the non-task hand. This increase was significantly less when the right hand rather than the left hand was the task hand. This difference was seen only in muscles homologous to primary task muscles. The asymmetry could not be explained by changes in F-wave amplitudes. Hemispheric asymmetry of ipsilateral motor cortex activation either supports the idea that, in right handers, the left motor cortex is more active in ipsilateral hand movements, or alternatively, that the left motor cortex exerts more effective inhibitory control over the right motor cortex than vice versa. We suggest that hemispheric asymmetry of ipsilateral motor cortex activation is one property of motor dominance of the left motor cortex.Clinical Neurophysiology 02/2001; 112(1):107-13. · 3.14 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To study the effect of different types of unilateral pinch grips on excitability of the ipsilateral motor cortex. In 9 healthy volunteers, transcranial magnetic stimuli (TMS) were applied over one motor cortex while the subjects performed either phasic or tonic ipsilateral pinch grips with different force levels (range 1-40% maximum voluntary contraction, MVC). Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were recorded from the relaxed contralateral first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) and were compared to MEPs obtained during muscle relaxation of both hands. In additional experiments, transcranial electrical stimuli (TES) were administered and F waves were recorded after electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve. Phasic pinch grips with low force (1 and 2% MVC) induced a significant decrease of TMS-induced MEP amplitudes. The effect lasted for about 100 ms after reaching the force level and was similar for both right and left-handed pinch grips. TES-induced MEPs and F waves remained unchanged. In contrast, tonic contractions (20 and 40% MVC) enhanced MEPs in the homologous FDI. Phasic pinch grips with low force inhibit the motor cortex responsible for the contralateral homologous hand muscle. This effect, which is probably mediated transcallosally, might act at the level of the motor cortex.Clinical Neurophysiology 02/2001; 112(1):114-21. · 3.14 Impact Factor