Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushrooms.
ABSTRACT Three species of medicinal mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, namely, Ganoderma lucidum (Ling-chih), Ganoderma tsugae (Sung-shan-ling-chih), and Coriolus versicolor (Yun-chih). Methanolic extracts were prepared from these medicinal mushrooms and their antioxidant properties studied. At 0.6 mg/mL, G. lucidum, G. lucidum antler, and G. tsugae showed an excellent antioxidant activity (2.30-6.41% of lipid peroxidation), whereas C. versicolor showed only 58.56%. At 4 mg/mL, reducing powers were in the order G. tsugae (2.38) approximately G. lucidum antler (2.28) > G. lucidum (1.62) > C. versicolor (0.79). At 0.64 mg/mL, scavenging effects on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical were 67.6-74.4% for Ganoderma and 24.6% for C. versicolor. The scavenging effect of methanolic extracts from G. lucidum and G. lucidum antler on hydroxyl radical was the highest (51.2 and 52.6%) at 16 mg/mL, respectively. At 2.4 mg/mL, chelating effects on ferrous ion were in the order G. lucidum antler (67.7%) > G. lucidum (55.5%) > G. tsugae (44.8%) > C. versicolor (13.2%). Total phenols were the major naturally occurring antioxidant components found in methanolic extracts from medicinal mushrooms. Overall, G. lucidum and G. tsugae were higher in antioxidant activity, reducing power, scavenging and chelating abilities, and total phenol content.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jeng-Leun Mau, Feb 13, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Saururus chinensis has been reported to contain compounds such as lignans, alkaloids, diterpenes, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and lipids. Fermentation is commonly used to break down certain undesirable compounds, to induce effective microbial conversion, and to improve the potential nutraceutical values. Previous studies have reported that the fermentation process could modify naturally occurring constituents, including isoflavons, saponins, phytosterols, and phenols, and could enhance biological activities, specifically antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The probiotic strains used for fermentation exert beneficial effects and are safe. In this study, the antioxidative effects of the Bacillus subtilis fermentation of Saururus chinensis were investigated in a rat model with Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia by comparing the measured antioxidative biological parameters of fermented Saururus chinensis extract to those of nonfermented Saururus chinensis extract. Fermentation played a more excellent role than nonfermentation in ultimately protecting the body from oxidative stress in the liver of the experimental rats with Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia.12/2014; 30(4):291-6. DOI:10.5487/TR.2014.30.4.291
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ABSTRACT: A new protocol for processing of pumpkin juice was set up which included fermentation by the basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum at 28 °C for 7 d. The growth curve of G. lucidum in pumpkin juice was successfully (R2 = 0.99) fitted by a 4-parameter logistic model and the ideal highest biomass was estimated to be 4.79 g/L. G. lucidum was found to have a significant acidification effect on pumpkin juice. The lowest pH (4.05 ± 0.05) and highest total titratable acidity (14.31 ± 0.16 mL 0.1 M NaOH/100 mL) were found on the 4th day during fermentation. Sugars in pumpkin juice fermented with G. lucidum showed a significant decrease, especially glucose and fructose. On the contrary, the release of exo-polysaccharides and free amino acids greatly enriched the pumpkin juice. The variation of color index and viscosity also mirrored the above behavior. Based on headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 68 volatile compounds were identified, including 17 esters, 14 alcohols, 13 phenyl compounds, 11 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 3 acids, 1 furan, and 1 benzothiazole. The pumpkin juices fermented for different days were markedly differentiated with principal component analysis and the fermentation process was tentatively divided into 3 periods: the booming (from the 1st to 4th day), steady (from the 5th to 6th day), and decline (the 7th day) period.Practical ApplicationPumpkin is a traditional vegetable with high production in many countries. As far as we know, soft beverages made of pumpkin juice are not very popular in the market. The application of Ganoderma lucidum to the fermentation of pumpkin juice offered a new approach for pumpkin products processing. Fermentation of pumpkin juice by G. lucidum could combine the function of pumpkin and G. lucidum and develop a new product with more health benefits. Fermented pumpkin juices are likely to be developed into expected pumpkin beverages and even functional drinks for specific people, for example, a low-sugar beverage designed for old people who are very prone to cardio-cerebral vascular diseases.Journal of Food Science 12/2014; 80(2). DOI:10.1111/1750-3841.12741 · 1.79 Impact Factor