Regulatory functions of human CD4(+)T cells recognizing allopeptides in the context of self-HLA class II
ABSTRACT Pretransplant blood transfusions sharing one human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR) with the recipient have been shown to enhance graft survival, whereas HLA-DR mismatched blood transfusions will lead to immunization of the patient. The involvement of self HLA-DR suggests a role for CD4(+) regulatory T cells recognizing allopeptides in the context of self HLA class II molecules. Specific immunoregulation may be due to recognition of these allopeptides in the DR molecules of autologous T cells or dendritic cells. We tested this hypothesis on the basis of the reactivity of cell line ThoU6 which recognizes a peptide derived from an allo DR3 molecule, in the context of self DPB1*0301, and EL26, a CD4(+) T-cell clone recognizing HLA-A2 peptide in the presence of DRB1*1501. Addition of the line and clone to an assay in which the alloreactive cytotoxic T cell response (in a limiting dilution analysis) of PBLs sharing the restriction element was measured, resulted in a suppression of the anti-donor response but only when the proper peptide was added. These regulatory CD4(+) T cells were cytotoxic for targets presenting the proper peptide in the context of self MHC class II. Furthermore, these cells produced IL-10 after stimulation with the specific MHC/peptide combinations. Despite the similarity in function, EL26 and ThoU6 showed some differences in their phenotypic characteristics. Although both were CD25(+), EL26 expressed surface TGF-beta and CTLA-4, while ThoU6 did not. Similar regulatory T cells may explain the enhanced graft survival after HLA-DR shared blood transfusions either by their interaction with autologous alloreactive T cells or by modulation of autologous dendritic cells presenting the peptide involved.
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ABSTRACT: Blood transfusions can lead to immunization or tolerance in the recipient. The latter is characterized by an improved transplant outcome after pretransplant blood transfusions. First observations of improved kidney graft outcome after blood transfusion date 35 years back, however no exclusive immunological mechanism has been found yet. At the Leiden University Medical Center, patients on the waiting list for simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT) received a non-leukocyte depleted, HLA-DR shared blood transfusion before transplantation. We showed that a pretransplant blood transfusion was able to diminish the severity of acute rejection episodes after SPKT. The need for HLA-DR sharing suggests a role for the indirect allorecognition. Our in vitro experiments focusing on the indirect allorecognition and on several subsets of recipient immune cells, showed that a pretransplant blood transfusion activates the recipient’s immune system. It is still not clear if and how this activation state can lead to transplantation tolerance. Additionally, there may be a role for microchimeric donor cells in the immunological mechanism leading to tolerance. Pretransplant blood transfusions may still be of clinical benefit in these times of potent immunosuppressive drug use, but requires the support of well-designed RCTs as well as more insight into the immunological mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: It is now possible to induce donor-specific transplantation tolerance in adult rodents using non-depleting monoclonal antibodies against T cell co-receptor and co-stimulation molecules or by immunisation with tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells. It is a common finding of all these models of peripheral tolerance, as well as of various mouse models of autoimmune disease, that regulatory CD4(+) T cells are the principal mediators. There are currently no specific markers for regulatory T cells, but in some autoimmune models their activity has been associated with the expression of activation markers such as CD25 and CTLA4, or anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta. CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from both naïve and tolerised donors are able to transfer tolerance to grafts in lymphopenic recipients, and this may be directly applicable to bone-marrow transplantation. The challenge is now to understand the biological principles that allow such immune re-programming so that they can be safely applied to clinical organ grafting.Transplant International 03/2003; 16(2):66-75. DOI:10.1007/s00147-003-0545-y · 2.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infusion of donor-derived cells can improve organ allograft survival in animal models. Under certain conditions, it can even induce tolerance (i.e., unlimited organ survival without any maintenance immunosuppressive therapy). Use of nonmyeloablative regimens allows engraftment of donor-derived bone marrow cells, induction of mixed chimerism, and tolerance in rodents. High doses of bone marrow cells together with anti-T-cell antibodies can even result in mixed chimerism without cytoablative host conditioning. Cultured donor-derived CD34+ cells or donor-derived immature (or even mature) dendritic cells associated with monoclonal antibodies directed against co-stimulatory molecules might also induce tolerance. Among the numerous experimental protocols leading to tolerance of solid organs in animal models, how can we find our bearings in human transplantation? Numerous problems have yet to be solved: the type and amount of donor-derived cells (including stromal cells) to be used, the timing for infusion of donor cells in keeping with organ transplantation, the route of infusion (should it be intravenous, into the portal vein?), and the conditioning regimen. The first clinical trials would appear to indicate that tolerance induction in humans using donor-derived cells is a relatively safe solution that is both promising and realistic.Transplantation 06/2003; 75(9 Suppl):3S-7S. DOI:10.1097/01.TP.0000067943.90241.73 · 3.83 Impact Factor