[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Spain is high, the incidence in comparison to the United States and Japan is low. Spain's rate of deceased organ donation is the highest in the world, and its renal transplant incidence rate is also relatively high. In addition, ESRD care represents a large portion of the overall health care budget. Quality of care in the National Health Service is not determined by competition or performance rewards; instead, several health agencies and scientific societies monitor it. Nevertheless, nephrologists with low salaries have relatively few professional and economic incentives to improve quality.
International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics 01/2008; 7(4):253-67. · 0.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The response to erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) can vary among different patients and according to the different circumstances over time within a given individual. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that can modify the response to epoetin in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and its influence on early mortality. Prospective and observational study including 1710 patients from 119 HD units in Spain with a follow-up of 12 months. To evaluate the dose-response effect of EPO therapy, we used the erythropoietin resistance index (ERI), calculated as the weekly weight-adjusted dose of EPO divided by the hemoglobin level. Patients were stratified in three groups according to ERI: group A, ERI <5; group B, ERI=5-15; group C, ERI>15 U/kg/week/g per 100 ml. Mean ERI for the entire group was 10.2+/-7.3 U/kg/week/g per 100 ml. ERI was directly related with incident comorbidity (Charlson Index), age, female gender and low body mass index with no relationship with etiology of chronic kidney disease. Patients with antecedents of heart failure, acute infection or malignant neoplasm had significantly higher ERI than those without. Transferrin saturation index, but not serum ferritin, was inversely related with ERI. Serum levels of albumin and cholesterol were related with lower ERI, but no relation was found with normalized protein catabolic rate. Patients with a permanent catheter for HD had significant higher values of ERI than those with native fistula (P=0.012). One year survival in all three groups of patients according to ERI was 0.916 in group A, 0.877 in group B and 0.788 in group C (log-rank=20.7, P<0.001). The resistance to ESA is directly related with incident comorbidity in patients on hemodialysis and it can be interpreted as a useful marker of early mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation are suboptimal because many patients lose their allografts or experience premature death. Cross-country comparisons of long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation may provide insight into factors contributing to premature graft failure and death. We evaluated the rates of late graft failure and death among US and Spanish kidney recipients.Methods
This is a cohort study of US (n = 9609) and Spanish (n = 3808) patients who received a deceased donor kidney transplant in 1990, 1994, 1998 or 2002 and had a functioning allograft 1 year after transplantation with follow-up through September 2006. Ten-year overall and death-censored graft survival and 10-year overall recipient survival and death with graft function (DWGF) were estimated with multivariate Cox models.ResultsAmong recipients alive with graft function 1 year after transplant, the 10-year graft survival was 71.3% for Spanish and 53.4% for US recipients (P < 0.001). The 10-year, death-censored graft survival was 75.6 and 76.0% for Spanish and US recipients, respectively (P = 0.73). The 10-year recipient survival was 86.2% for Spanish and 67.4% for US recipients (P < 0.001). In recipients with diabetes as the cause of ESRD, the adjusted DWGF rates at 10 years were 23.9 and 53.8 per 1000 person-years for Spanish and US recipients, respectively (P < 0.001). Among recipients whose cause of ESRD was not diabetes mellitus, the adjusted 10-year DWGF rates were 11.0 and 25.4 per 1000 person-years for Spanish and US recipients, respectively.ConclusionsUS kidney transplant recipients had more than twice the long-term hazard of DWGF compared with Spanish kidney transplant recipients and similar levels of death-censored graft function. Pre-transplant medical care, comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, and their management in each country's health system are possible explanations for the differences between the two countries.
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