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Available from: Nicolas R Robles, Apr 03, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Late nephrologist referral may adversely affect outcome in patients initiating maintenance hemodialysis therapy, mostly with temporary catheters that may further increase morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of 2 variables on mortality: presentation mode (planned versus unplanned) and type of access (arteriovenous fistula [AVF] versus temporary catheter) at entry. This was a 3-center, 5-year, prospective, observational, cohort study of 538 incident patients. Measurements included presentation mode, type of access, renal function and biochemical test results at entry, and stratification of risk groups. Main outcome measures were mortality and hospitalization. Of 281 planned patients (52%), 73% initiated therapy with an AVF. Of 257 unplanned patients (48%), 70% initiated therapy with a catheter (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that unplanned presentation (hazard ratio [HR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.44) and initiation of therapy with catheter (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.46) were independently associated with greater mortality and similar HRs after adjusting for confounders. At 12 months, the number of deaths was 3 times higher in both the unplanned versus planned groups and catheter versus AVF groups. The joint effect of unplanned dialysis initiation and catheter use had an additive impact on mortality (HR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.97 to 4.22). Greater hematocrit (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.09) and albumin level (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.33) showed an independent association with survival, underscoring the benefits of predialysis care. Using Poisson regression, all-cause hospitalization (incidence rate ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.36 to 1.79; P < 0.001) and infection-related (incidence rate ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.91 to 3.59; P < 0.001) and vascular access-related (incidence rate ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.94; P < 0.003) admissions were higher in unplanned patients initiating therapy with a catheter than in planned patients initiating therapy with an AVF, after adjusting for confounders. Unplanned dialysis initiation and temporary catheter were independently associated with greater mortality rates in incident patients. The combined influence of both variables was associated with greater morbidity and mortality than either variable alone.
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective studies have shown hospitalization and mortality rates during haemodialysis (HD) to be associated with anaemia. The prospective, multicentre Morbidity-and-mortality Anaemia Renal (MAR) study was designed to establish the burden of anaemia by controlling for other risk factors. Charlson index was used for comorbid adjustment. Finally, 1428 patients from 119 centres (60% men, aged 64.4 years, time on HD 15.3 months, Charlson comorbidity index 6.5 +/- 2.3) completed follow-up. They had hypertension (75.8%), diabetes mellitus (25.9%), heart failure (13.9%) and coronary disease (16.7%). Of the total patients, 94.8% were receiving erythropoietin (111.6 +/- 70.6 U/kg/week) and 76.7% i.v. iron, and haemoglobin (Hb) at inclusion was 11.7 +/- 1.5 g/dl. Hospitalization rate was 1.1 admissions/patient/year. Yearly mortality was 12% [35% cardiovascular (CV)]. The relative risk and confidence interval (CI) for hospitalization and death were 0.86 (0.81-0.91) and 0.82 (0.73-0.91), respectively, per 1 g/dl increase in initial Hb after adjustment for comorbidity, vintage, aetiology, access type, albumin and Kt/V. The probability of remaining free from hospitalization (CI) was 0.34 (0.27-0.41) for initial Hb <10 g/dl, 0.47 (0.41-0.53) for Hb 10-11 g/dl, 0.54 (0.49-0.59) for Hb 11-12 g/dl, and 0.63 (0.59-0.67) for Hb >12 g/dl. Same analysis for patient survival was 0.77 (0.71-0.83) for Hb <10 g/dl vs 0.82 (0.77-0.87) for Hb 10-11 vs 0.89 (0.86-0.92) for Hb 11-12 vs 0.92 (0.90-0.94) for Hb > 12 g/dl, P < 0.001. The Cox regression model for hospitalization-free survival included the risk factors initial Hb (relative risk 0.86 per 1 g/dl increase, P < 0.001) Charlson, albumin and prior CV event. Hb level predicted 1-year-survival and hospitalization. This effect persisted after adjustment for comorbidity and other prognostic factors.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2007; 22(2):500-7. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfl558 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Spain is high, the incidence in comparison to the United States and Japan is low. Spain's rate of deceased organ donation is the highest in the world, and its renal transplant incidence rate is also relatively high. In addition, ESRD care represents a large portion of the overall health care budget. Quality of care in the National Health Service is not determined by competition or performance rewards; instead, several health agencies and scientific societies monitor it. Nevertheless, nephrologists with low salaries have relatively few professional and economic incentives to improve quality.
    International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics 01/2008; 7(4):253-67. DOI:10.1007/s10754-007-9021-z · 0.49 Impact Factor
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