Growth and growth hormone status after a bone marrow transplant.
ABSTRACT The three most common clinical situations which have given rise to diagnostic and therapeutic issues involve the child treated for: (1) a brain tumour or extracranial tumour with radiotherapy (XRT) which includes an XRT dose of > or =30 Gy to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis; (2) acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with a cranial XRT dose of 18-24 Gy, and (3) haematological malignancy or solid tumour requiring total body irradiation (dose 10-14 Gy) and BMT. The decision about the intent to treat and the timing of GH replacement needs to be taken in collaboration with the paediatric oncologist who will provide guidance about overall prognosis and the risk of relapse. After a dose of > or =30 Gy to the hypothalamic pituitary axis the risk of GH deficiency (GHD) 2 years later is very high (>50%) and therefore there is 'solid' epidemiological evidence, which predicts outcome. Therapeutically the choice is whether or not to offer GH replacement at 2 years in the presence of biochemical evidence of GHD but independent of auxology, or wait until the growth rate declines. Diagnostically the IGF-1 SDS is more useful than previously thought, particularly if XRT-induced GHD is severe; there may, however, be systematic discordancy between the GH responses to different pharmacological stimuli (ITT vs. arginine). For irradiated children in categories 2 and 3, greater emphasis is placed on auxology in determining the need for assessment of GH status. Early rather than very precocious puberty is a real issue and needs to be actively treated with a GnRH analogue if final height appears to be significantly compromised.
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ABSTRACT: Children requiring allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) have multiple risk factors for impaired bone accrual. The impact of alloHSCT on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and cortical structure has not been addressed. Tibia peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans were obtained in 55 alloHSCT recipients, ages 5 to 26 years, a median of 7 (range, 3-16) years after alloHSCT. pQCT outcomes were converted to sex- and race- specific Z-scores relative to age based on reference data in >700 concurrent healthy participants. Cortical section modulus (Zp; a summary measure of cortical bone structure and strength), and muscle and fat area Z-scores were further adjusted for tibia length for age Z-scores. AlloHSCT survivors had lower height Z-scores (-1.21 ± 1.25 versus 0.23 ± 0.92; p < 0.001), versus reference participants; BMI Z-scores did not differ. AlloHSCT survivors had lower trabecular vBMD (-1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.33 to -0.78; p < 0.001), cortical Zp (-0.63; 95% CI, -0.91 to -0.35; p < 0.001), and muscle (-1.01; 95% CI, -1.30 to -0.72; p < 0.001) Z-scores and greater fat (0.82; 95% CI, 0.54-1.11; p < 0.001) Z-scores, versus reference participants. Adjustment for muscle deficits eliminated Zp deficits in alloHSCT. Total body irradiation (TBI) was associated with lower trabecular vBMD (-1.30 ± 1.40 versus -0.49 ± 0.88; p = 0.01) and muscle (-1.34 ± 1.42 versus -0.34 ± 0.87; p < 0.01) Z-scores. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was associated with lower Zp Z-scores (-1.64 ± 2.47 versus -0.28 ± 1.24; p = 0.05); however, muscle differences were not significant (-1.69 ± 1.84 versus -0.78 ± 1.01; p = 0.09). History of graft versus host disease was not associated with pQCT outcomes. In summary, alloHSCT was associated with significant deficits in trabecular vBMD, cortical geometry, and muscle area years after transplantation. TBI and GHD were significant risk factors for musculoskeletal deficits. Future studies are needed to determine the metabolic and fracture implications of these deficits, and to identify therapies to improve bone accrual following alloHSCT during childhood.Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 12/2011; 27(4):760-9. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the correlation between age, degree of disturbances in dental development, and vertical growth of the face in children treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). 39 long-term survivors of HSCT performed in childhood and transplanted before the age of 12, at a mean age of 6.8±3.3 years. Panoramic and cephalometric radiographs were taken at a mean age of 16.2 years. For each patient two age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. The area of three mandibular teeth was measured and a cephalometric analysis was performed. The mean area of the mandibular central incisor, first and second molar was significantly smaller in the HSCT group, and the vertical growth of the face was significantly reduced, especially in the lower third, compared to healthy controls. A statistically significant correlation between age at HSCT, degree of disturbances in dental development, and vertical growth of the face was found. Children subjected to pre-HSCT chemotherapy protocols had significantly more growth reduction in vertical craniofacial variables compared to children without pre-HSCT chemotherapy. Conditioning regimens including busulfan or total body irradiation had similar deleterious effects on tooth area reduction and craniofacial parameters. The younger the child is at HSCT, the greater the impairment in dental and vertical facial development. This supports the suggestion that the reduction in lower facial height found in SCT children mainly is a result of impaired dental development and that young age is a risk factor for more severe disturbances.Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research 02/2012; 15(1):21-9. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the effect of chemotherapy on endocrinopathies and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Endocrine function and metabolic syndrome were evaluated in 12 AML survivors, treated with chemotherapy, and in 9 survivors of myeloid leukemias treated with stem cell transplantation (SCT), after a median follow-up time of 20 years (range 9-31). In survivors treated with chemotherapy, no endocrinopathies or metabolic syndrome were present, although AMH and Inhibin B levels tended to be lower than in controls. In SCT survivors, pituitary deficiencies and metabolic syndrome were more frequent.Leukemia research 01/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor