Growth and growth hormone status after a bone marrow transplant.
ABSTRACT The three most common clinical situations which have given rise to diagnostic and therapeutic issues involve the child treated for: (1) a brain tumour or extracranial tumour with radiotherapy (XRT) which includes an XRT dose of > or =30 Gy to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis; (2) acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with a cranial XRT dose of 18-24 Gy, and (3) haematological malignancy or solid tumour requiring total body irradiation (dose 10-14 Gy) and BMT. The decision about the intent to treat and the timing of GH replacement needs to be taken in collaboration with the paediatric oncologist who will provide guidance about overall prognosis and the risk of relapse. After a dose of > or =30 Gy to the hypothalamic pituitary axis the risk of GH deficiency (GHD) 2 years later is very high (>50%) and therefore there is 'solid' epidemiological evidence, which predicts outcome. Therapeutically the choice is whether or not to offer GH replacement at 2 years in the presence of biochemical evidence of GHD but independent of auxology, or wait until the growth rate declines. Diagnostically the IGF-1 SDS is more useful than previously thought, particularly if XRT-induced GHD is severe; there may, however, be systematic discordancy between the GH responses to different pharmacological stimuli (ITT vs. arginine). For irradiated children in categories 2 and 3, greater emphasis is placed on auxology in determining the need for assessment of GH status. Early rather than very precocious puberty is a real issue and needs to be actively treated with a GnRH analogue if final height appears to be significantly compromised.
- SourceAvailable from: edrv.endojournals.orgEndocrine Reviews 05/1998; 19(2):203-23. · 14.87 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Short stature is a potential side-effect of BMT, brought about by the conditioning protocol and/or the complications of BMT. This study evaluates the effects of conditioning by chemotherapy, and BMT complications on growth. Thirty children conditioned for BMT by chemotherapy alone (cyclophosphamide and busulfan) were classified according to the occurrence of serious or prolonged complications after BMT: group 1 (n = 12) had no complication, while group 2 (n = 18) did. Fifteen of them were severely growth retarded (< or = -2 s.d.) at BMT, because of their initial disease. At the time of BMT, the two groups had similar ages (1.0 +/- 0.2, s.e.m. year, in group 1 and 1.7 +/- 0.5 year in group 2), height (-1.7 +/- 0.5; -1.8 +/- 0.3 s.d.) and plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) levels (0.3 +/- 0.1 U/ml in both). Group I grew significantly and their plasma IGFI increased but group 2 did not, as assessed 2 years post-BMT. We conclude that conditioning with chemotherapy alone does not prevent the catch-up growth induced by BMT in young children; the lack of catch-up growth is due to complications occurring after BMT, and the change in plasma IGFI suggests that complications of BMT prevent any increase in plasma IGFI, and thereby catch-up growth.Bone Marrow Transplantation 02/1997; 19(3):253-6. · 3.54 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in a group of patients after bone marrow transplantation for thalassemia major. At the end of treatment we divided the subjects into two groups according to the outcome of the therapy: responder and nonresponder. Responder group: after 24 months of rhGH administration, growth rate was still significantly higher in respect to start of treatment (P < 0.0001). Plasma levels of IGF-I rose significantly (P < 0.003). The serum levels of serum asparate aminotransferase (SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) were higher compared to normal values but improved in non-responder patients. There was no difference in the mean concentration of these parameters before and after treatment (P = NS). Non-responder group: these patients had a worsening of the growth rate during rhGH administration. There was no increase of the IGF-I levels. Single values of transaminase and ferritin levels were higher than in responder patients before and after treatment. There was a significant correlation between IGF-I, SGOT, SGPT and ferritin in all patients before and after therapy. It appears from these data that rhGH administration is worth serious consideration in patients after BMT for thalassemia major presenting impaired growth hormone secretion. This treatment can offer good results only in cases where the normal hepatic synthesis of IGF-I is conserved and where liver damage has not reached irreversible conditions, as we have seen in the responder group.Bone Marrow Transplantation 10/1997; 20(7):567-73. · 3.54 Impact Factor