Timing of shunt surgery in childhood tuberculous meningitis with hydrocephalus.
ABSTRACT Hydrocephalus is a common complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in children. The aims of this study are to review our experience of hydrocephalus in childhood TBM and to evaluate the effect of the timing of ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) on the final outcome. In this study, 156 patients with TBM and hydrocephalus were reviewed retrospectively between 1990 and 2000. Patients' ages ranged from 6 months to 15 years, with a mean age of 4.1 years. There were 85 boys, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.19:1.0. Sixty-two percent of the children were younger than 6 years old. VPS was performed 2 days after the diagnosis in 100 patients, and in the remaining 56 patients, 3 weeks after the diagnosis. The average follow-up period was 8.5 months. Good recovery or minor sequelae was seen in 82 patients (52.6%), and 51 died (12.3%). The timing of the VPS procedure and cerebral complications had an effect on the final outcome. Early VPS gave a better outcome in mild and moderate hydrocephalus (p = 0.040). This study has shown that early surgical procedure for mild/moderate hydrocephalus has a positive effect on the morbidity and mortality of hydrocephalus in childhood TBM (p = 0.014, p = 0.040, respectively). In severe hydrocephalus, there was a tendency for early shunting to have a positive effect on morbidity, although this did not reach statistical significance.
Article: British Infection Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis of the central nervous system in adults and children.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SUMMARY AND KEY RECOMMENDATIONS: The aim of these guidelines is to describe a practical but evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system tuberculosis in children and adults. We have presented guidance on tuberculous meningitis (TBM), intra-cerebral tuberculoma without meningitis, and tuberculosis affecting the spinal cord. Our key recommendations are as follows: 1. TBM is a medical emergency. Treatment delay is strongly associated with death and empirical anti-tuberculosis therapy should be started promptly in all patients in whom the diagnosis of TBM is suspected. Do not wait for microbiological or molecular diagnostic confirmation. 2. The diagnosis of TBM is best made with lumbar puncture and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Suspect TBM if there is a CSF leucocytosis (predominantly lymphocytes), the CSF protein is raised, and the CSF:plasma glucose is <50%. The diagnostic yield of CSF microscopy and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis increases with the volume of CSF submitted; repeat the lumbar puncture if the diagnosis remains uncertain. 3. Imaging is essential for the diagnosis of cerebral tuberculoma and tuberculosis involving the spinal cord, although the radiological appearances do not confirm the diagnosis. A tissue diagnosis (by histopathology and mycobacterial culture) should be attempted whenever possible, either by biopsy of the lesion itself, or through diagnostic sampling from extra-neural sites of disease e.g. lung, gastric fluid, lymph nodes, liver, bone marrow. 4. Treatment for all forms of CNS tuberculosis should consist of 4 drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol) for 2 months followed by 2 drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin) for at least 10 months. Adjunctive corticosteroids (either dexamethasone or prednisolone) should be given to all patients with TBM, regardless of disease severity. 5. Children with CNS tuberculosis should ideally be managed by a paediatrician with familiarity and expertise in paediatric tuberculosis or otherwise with input from a paediatric infectious diseases unit. The Children's HIV Association of UK and Ireland (CHIVA) provide further guidance on the management of HIV-infected children (www.chiva.org.uk). 6. All patients with suspected or proven tuberculosis should be offered testing for HIV infection. The principles of CNS tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment are the same for HIV infected and uninfected individuals, although HIV infection broadens the differential diagnosis and anti-retroviral treatment complicates management. Tuberculosis in HIV infected patients should be managed either within specialist units by physicians with expertise in both HIV and tuberculosis, or in a combined approach between HIV and tuberculosis experts. The co-administration of anti-retroviral and anti-tuberculosis drugs should follow guidance issued by the British HIV association (www.bhiva.org).The Journal of infection 07/2009; 59(3):167-87. · 4.13 Impact Factor
Article: The neurosurgical and acute care management of tuberculous meningitis: evidence and current practice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most lethal form of tuberculosis; mortality is high and survivors are often left neurologically disabled. Several factors contribute to this poor outcome, including cerebrovascular involvement with ensuing brain ischemia, hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure, direct parenchymal injury, hyponatremia, and seizures. However, there is little standardisation of management with respect to these aspects of care across different centers, largely because the evidence base for much of the supportive treatment of patients with TBM is poor, leading to substantial differences in management protocols. This review emphasizes some of the uncertainties and controversies pertinent to the surgical treatment of hydrocephalus in TBM and the medical supportive management of the patient during the acute phase of the illness, with the aims of raising awareness and stimulating debate. The focus is on the management of hyponatremia, cerebral hemodynamics and intracranial pressure, medical and surgical treatment for hydrocephalus, and the intensive care management of patients in the acute severe stage of the illness. Very little data are available to address these issues with good evidence and so institutional preferences are common; this is perhaps most notable for the management of hydrocephalus, and so in this the review highlights our personal practice. The brain needs protection while the source of the illness is addressed. Without attention to these aspects of management there will always be a limit to the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy in TBM, so there is a strong imperative for the controversies to be resolved and the limitations of our current care to be addressed. Existing protocols should be rigorously examined and novel strategies to protect the brain should be explored. To this end, a prospective, multi-disciplinary and multi-centered approach may yield answers to the questions raised in this review.Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 10/2010; 90(6):393-400. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hydrocephalus secondary to tuberculous meningitis (TBM) continues to be a challenging condition to treat for neurosurgeons in developing countries. Shunt complications are reportedly more frequent in patients undergoing ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in patients with TBM than in those undergoing shunt surgeries for other causes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition on shunt malfunction. We compared the CSF composition of 53 patients who had shunt malfunction during a five year period with that of 137 matched controls. Patients who had shunt malfunction had a significantly higher concentration of CSF protein. The CSF cellularity and glucose concentration did not have any significant bearing in predicting shunt malfunction. Patients with CSF protein concentration of more than 200 mg/dL had a four times higher risk of having shunt malfunction than those with a concentration of less than 100 mg/dL. Patients with CSF protein in the 100-200 mg/dL range represent an intermediate zone. To conclude, patients with CSF protein concentration of more than 200 mg/dL have a significantly higher risk of shunt malfunction and hence have to be followed up closely.The Indian journal of tuberculosis 04/2011; 58(2):77-81.